ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RESEARCH

ABSTRACTS
Volume 26, Numbers 3 & 4

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 165-170, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Nitric Oxide in vPAG Mediates the Depressor Response to Acupuncture in Stress-Induced Hypertensive Rats

Li Li, M.D., Associate Professor of Physiology
Cao Yin-Xiang, M. D., Associate Professor of Physiology
Xue Hong, M.B., Assistant of Physiology
Li Peng, M.D., Professor of Physiology
Zliu Da-Nian, Ph.D., Professer of Physiology

Department of Physiology, Medical Center of Fudan University (The Former Shanghai Medical University), Shanghai 200032, P. R. China

The hypertensive rat model was made by chronic stress of electric foot-shocks and noises. On such hypertensive rats, when anesthetized with urethane and chloralose, the electroacupuncture (EA) to bilateral "Zusanii (st.36)" acupoints for 20 min, could result in a depressor (including both systolic and diastolic pressure) and bradycardiac response as well as an attenuation in the maximum of left ventricular pressure, end diastolic pressure and ±dp/dt In power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability aspect, EA could increase all total variance, very low frequency component, low frequency component and the ratio of low frequency component and high frequency component. When EA with microinjection of Nw-Nitro-L-Arginine, a blocker of the formation of nitric oxide, into the ventral periaqueductal gray matter (vPAG), the above effects of EA were abolished or reduced significantly. The results suggest that the depressor effect of EA on stress-induced hypertensive rats might be mediated by nitric oxide in the VPAG due to activation of sympathetic inhibitory system and by attenuated cardiac activities.

Key words: Electroacupuncture, Stress-induced hypertension, Nitric oxide, Heart rate variability, Ventral periaqueductal gray matter

The project is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 39970277)




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 171-186, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Effects of Smiling or Crying Facial Expressions on Grip Strength, Measured With a Hand Dynamometer and the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test

Kemal Nuri Özerkan, M.D.
Assistant Professor and Chairman of Department of Sports and Health Sciences, Istanbul University, School of Physical Education and Sports

The effects of smiling or crying facial expressions on grip strength and the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test were evaluated in this study. Ten right-handed basketball players (age group 18-28) were included in the study. Grip strength was measured with a Riester hand dynamometer and the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test successively, after the players had looked at the drawing of a "crying face" for 5 seconds from a distance of 40 cm at the eye level. Immediately afterwards they were shown the drawing of a "smiling face" and were asked to grip with the same condition. Once all 10 players carried out this experiment, the order in which the drawings were shown was reversed. We then proceeded to measure the same variables, using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. The statistics obtained thereby were subjected to Pearsons correlation coefficient and paired t-test. Using a hand dynamometer and the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, it was found that, in both tests, the "smiling face" drawing (first crying, then smiling face: with hand dynamometer, it increased from 8.34 ± 0.97 kg to 9.18 ± 0.9 kg; t = 5.39, p = 0.0001) increased the grip strength of the basketball players, and the "crying face" drawing (first smiling face, then crying face: with hand dynamometer it decreased from 9.35 ± 0.90 kg to 8.51 ± 0.96 kg; t = 9.81, p = 0.0001) decreased the grip strength. Exposure to the smiling face drawing increased the grip strength, and exposure to the crying face decreased it, in every subject tested in this group. Similar effects were observed with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (first crying, then smiling: it increased from -2.80 ± 1.13 to 2.20 ± 1.32; t = 33.54, p = 0.0001; first smiling then crying: it decreased from 2.40 ± 1.34 to -2.20 ± 1.62; t = 15.06, p = 0.0001).

Key words: Smiling facial expression; Crying facial expression; Grip strength; Hand dynamometer; Bi-Digital O-Ring Test; Witcoxon Test

Correspondence: Kemal N. 6zerkan, M.D., University of Istanbul, Dept. of Sports & Health Sciences, BESYO, Avcilar 34850, Istanbul-Turkey; E-mail: kemalozerkan@hotmail.com




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 187-194, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Auricular Acupuncture Increases Cell Proliferation in the Dentate Gyrus of Sprague-Dawley Rats

Ee-Hwa Kim, O.M.D., Ph.D.,
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Meridianology, College of Oriental Medicine, Semyung University, Chungbuk, 390-71 1, South Korea
Joo-Ho Chung, M.D., Ph.D.,
Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, South Korea
Chang-Ju Kim, M.D., Ph.D.,
Associate Professor, Dept. of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, South Korea

In a previous study, we have reported that acupuncture increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus after transient global ischemia in gerbils. In the present study, the effect of auricular acupuncture (AA) on dentate cell proliferation was examined in appropriately fed and food-deprived adult Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (BrdU) immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in cell birth in the dentate gyrus of both groups after AA treatment. In addition, the effect of AA on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus was more profound in the food-supplied group. These findings demonstrate that AA enhances cell proliferation in the dentate gurus of adult rats.

Key words: Auricular acupuncture; Cell proliferation; Dentate gyrus; Hippocampus

Correspondence to: Chang-Ju Kim, M.D., Associate Professor, Dept. of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, #1 Hoigi-dong, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul, 130-701, South Korea. Tel: +82-2-961-0407, 0282; Fax: +82-2-964-2195; E-mail: changju@khu.ac.kr




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 195-202, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Evaluation of Acupuncture Effect to Chronic Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Cervical and Upper Back Regions by the Concept of Meridians

Yen-Ying Kung, M.D., Senior Resident of Center for Traditional Medicine
Fang-Pey Chen, M.D., Associate Professor and Director of Center for Traditional Medicine
Ksiao-Lin Chaung, M.D., Associate Professor of Section of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology
Chung-Tei Chou, M.D., Professor of Section of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology
Yin-Yang Tsai, M.D., Associate Professor of Section of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology
Shinn-Jang Hwang, M.D., Professor and Director of Family Medicine

Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) in the cervical and upper back regions is a common medical problem. The involved muscles include trapezium, multifidi, splenius cervicis, levator scapulae, supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Acupuncture is a well-known method for relief of chronic pain. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture in MPS and its durability by using the concept of meridians. Twenty-nine patients with chronic MPS in the upper back and cervical regions received acupuncture 2 times per week for 3 weeks. According to the pathways of the meridians, we chose acupuncture points by the pain regions located in which parts of meridian passing (i.e., "Where the meridian passes, where to treat the disease."). We evaluated the intensity of pain by visual analog scales (VAS) and active range of motion (ROM) of neck before and after therapy. After receiving acupuncture for 3 weeks, VAS of pain fell significantly from 9.0 ± 1.0 to 4.9 ± 2.5 and active ROM of neck significantly increased from 35.8 ± 10.2 degrees to 61.3 ± 9.4 degrees (p < 0.05). The onset of symptom relief was gradual and duration of symptom relief after a course of acupuncture was average 5.3 ± 1.2 days. In, conclusion, acupuncture is a somewhat effective method for pain relief of patients with chronic MPS in the cervical and upper back regions. However, the effect of acupuncture with the concept of meridians on MPS is insidious and the duration of the relief is not long enough.

Key words: Myofascial pain syndrome; Acupuncture; Meridians 195

Correspondence to: Fang-Pey Chen, M.D., Director of Center for Traditional Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, #201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC. Tel: 886-2-28757453; Fax: 886-2-28757452; E-mail: fpchen@vghtpe.gov.tw




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 229-238, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Comparison Between Superficial and Deep Acupuncture in the Treatment of the Shoulder's Myofascial Pain: A Randomized and Controlled Study

Francesco Ceecherelli, MD
Observatory on Unconventional Medicine of Veneto, Dept. of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, -A.I.R.A.S. - Padova
Maria Bordin, MD
ULSS 17, Este Monselice - Padova
Giuseppe Gagliardi, MD
Observatory on Unconventional Medicine of Veneto, Dept. of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, -A.I.R.A.S. - Padova
Massimiliano Caravello, MD
Observatory on Unconventional Medicine of Veneto, Dept. of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, -A.I.R.A.S. - Padova

The principle aim of the present work is the evaluation of the importance of the variable "depth" of needle insertion in the determination of acupuncture's therapeutic results. A randomized clinical trial carried out on 44 patients belonging to two groups of 22 each, suffering from shoulder myofascial pain: group A: superficial acupuncture; group B: deep acupuncture. All of them subjected to the same model of treatment with 13 needles and the treatment of the most painful 4 trigger points (TP) found in the shoulder's area. In the group A patients, the needles were introduced in the skin at a depth of 2 mm, on the TP. In the group B patients, the needles were placed deeply both in the muscular acupuncture points and in the TP. The treatment was planned for a cycle of 8 sessions, the first 4 to be performed twice a week, the last 4 weekly. The intensity of pain was evaluated with the McGill Pain Questionnaire before beginning the therapy, at the end of the therapy, and at the follow-up after 1 and 3 months. Both techniques had efficacy in controlling pain. A statistically 229 significant difference rose between the two needling techniques at the end of the treatment and at the follow up after one and three months. Deep acupuncture shows to be better at all times and this underlines the importance of the muscular afferences in acupunctural stimulation in the control of pain.

Key words: Acupuncture; Human; Pain; Clinical study; Randomized study; Controlled study; Methodology; Shoulder; Myofascial pain

Correspondence: Ceecherelli Francesco, MD, Dept. Of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, via C.Battisti N° 267; Tel: 390498213092; Fax: 390498754256; E-mail: istaneri@unipd.it




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 239-251, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Effect of Manual Acupuncture and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on the H-Reflex

Qwang-Yuen Chang, M.D., M.M.S
Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical College, 91 Hseuh-Shin Road, Taichung, Taiwan, R.0.C.
Jaung-Geng Lin, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Acupuncture
Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical College, 91 Hseuh-Shin Road, Taichung, Taiwan, R.0.C.
Ching-Liang Hsieh, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Neurology
Internal Medicine of Chinese Medicine Department, China Medical College Hospital, 2, Yuh-Der Road, Taichung, Taiwan, R.0.C.

Several studies find that manual acupuncture and transcutancous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are via different mechanisms and generate different effect on the central nervous system, therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effect of manual acupuncture (MA) and TENS on the spinal cord using H-reflex recordings. A total of 13 healthy adult volunteers were studied. The electrical stimuli were delivered to the posterior tibia] nerve transcutaneously at the left popliteal fossa to evoke the soleus H-reflex. MA, 2Hz TENS, 100HZ TENS, respectively, was applied to the surface of the right first dorsal interosseous muscle exactly at the Hegu acupoint (LI.4). Four assessments were performed randomly, separated by an interval of at least three days in all the subjects as follows: 1) Control assessment: a pair of electrodes placed on the surface of the right Hegu acupoint (LI.4), but no electrical stimulation was delivered throughout the test; 2) MA assessment: MA was done at the right Hegu acupoint (LI.4) for 15 minutes; 3) TENS assessment at 2Hz: electrical stimulation (40 mA in intensity) at 2Hz was applied to the surface of the right Hegu acupoint (LI.4) for 15 minutes; 4) TENS assessment at 100HZ: electrical stimulation (20 mA in intensity) at 100 Hz was applied to the surface of the right Hegu acupoint (LI.4) for 15 minutes. Each assessment was divided into three periods as follows: 1) Baseline period: H-reflexes recorded prior to MA or TENS; 2) TENS period: six H-reflex recordings after MA or TENS for a duration of 4-5 min, 9-10 min and 14-15 min, respectively; 3) Post TENS period: H-reflex recordings of 6 after TENS period 4-5 min and 9-10 min, respectively. Our results indicate that both 2Hz TENS and 100HZ TENS increased the amplitude of the H-reflex, and that these increases may be retained longer with 100 Hz TENS than with 2 Hz TENS, whereas MA could not increase the amplitude of the H-reflex. MA, TENS at 2 Hz or 100 Hz didn't change the latencies of the H-reflexes. We conclude that both 2Hz and 100Hz TENS increased the amplitude of the H-reflex, suggesting that TENS enhances the excitability of the motoneuron pool in the spinal cord, and 100 Hz TENS has a greater effect than 2 Hz TENS, whereas MA was not similar effect to TENS on spinal cord.

Key words: Manual acupuncture; Transcutaneious electrical nerve stimulation; H-reflex; 2Hz; 100Hz

Correspondence: Dr Ching-Liang Hsieh. Fax: 886-4-22062121-5064; Tel: 886-4-22062121 (ext.5062); E-mail: clhsieh432@yahoo.com.tw
 



Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 253-261, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Monitoring of Muscle Fatigue During Isokinetic Exercise

Olavi Airaksinen, MD, Ph.D, F.I.C.A.E., Associate Professor
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital
Pekka Rantanen, MD, Ph.D., Senior Consultant
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital
Teuvo Sihvonen, MD, Ph.D., Senior Consultant
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital
Kaisa Airaksinen, MD, Senior Consultant
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital
Osmo Hänninen, MD, Ph.D, F.I.C.A.E, Professor
Department of Physiology, Kuopio University
Arto Herno, MD, Ph.D, Senior Consultant
Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital

The aim of this study was to evaluate and clarify the usefulness of different spectral characteristics of myoelectrical activity in the follow-up of development of muscle fatigue. Vastus lateralis (part of quadriceps) muscle loaded in a simple isokinctic exertion test was used as a model. Twelve, well trained athletes served as study subjective to minimize the inter-individual variations. They went through one-minute test with isokinetic device at the range of 90 degrees extension and flexion at the level of their maximal force. The myoelectrical signals were registered from middle of the vasttis lateratis muscle by a computerized fast Fourier transform analyzing system based on 80286 and 80287 microprocessors and using surface electrodes. Mean power frequency (MPF) was 65.6 (SE = Standard Error, 1.6) Hz, median frequency (MF) 55.8 Hz and zero crossing rate (ZCR) 92.5 (SE 1.5) during first performance. All these parameters decreased apparently linearly and significantly from the beginning of the test (P < 0.001). The decrease rate of ZCR was fastest and MF slowest. The area of power spectrum (PSA) was 1753 (SE 320) units during first performance, and it increased markedly with slightly accelerating rate during the test. In conclusion, for the evaluation of the muscular performance during the development of fatigue it is beneficial to monitor simultaneously MPF, MF and ZCR.

Key words: Electromyography (EMG); Power spectrum; Fatique; Muscle

Correspondence to: Olavi Airaksinen, MD, Ph.D, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University, FIN 70210 Kuopio, Finland. Tel: + 358-17-173450; Fax: +358 -17-173466 or +358-17-3632239; E-mail: olavi.airaksinen@kuh.fi.
 




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 26, pp. 263-275, 2001
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA.

Atlanto-Axial Subluxation Syndrome and Management of Intractable Headache, Neck Pain and Shoulder Pain With Auricular Stimulation: A Clinical Case Report

Ki Ho Kim, M.D., FAAPMR, FICAE*
President/Medical Director, Kim Institute for Rehabilitation Medicine, Livingston, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Atianto-axial subluxation syndrome is a condition that is easily overlooked, misdiagnosed and mismanaged. Anatomy, neurovascular involvement and description of clinical manifestations are reviewed. Bi-Digital O-Ring Test is employed to establish an accurate diagnosis and its value and accuracy described briefly. Bi-Digital O-Ring Test has been an important diagnosis confirmation method (reconfirmed by CT or MRI in over 95% of more than 850 clinical cases) in this author's practice of spinal disorder and intractable pain management. A newly described device, the KIM-STIMTM offers auricular stimulation of multiple points, using electrical microcurrent. Each unit is individually custom-molded to the patient's ear, and fitted with multiple electrodes. It was found to be very effective in managing the majority of intractable pain, especially pain requiring multiple daily treatments in order for the patient to live and function normally. The KIM-STIMTM device allows the patient to self-manage the pain by day or night, thus allowing for a reduction or elimination of medication intake and diminishing the necessity for frequent doctor visits.

Key words: Atlanto-axial subluxation; Pain; Depression; Ear; Electrical stimulation; Bi-Digital O-Ring Test; CT; MRI; Serotonin; b-Endorphins; ACTH; Cortisol

*President of the Council and Member of the Board of Trustees of the International College of Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics, New York, U.S.A.