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ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS RESEARCH
The International Journal

ABSTRACTS
Volume 27, Numbers 1-2

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 1-14, 2002
0360-1293/02 $20.00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Communication Corp.
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Scientific Bases of Acupuncture Analgesia

Xiaoding Cao, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Professor of Neurobiology

National Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Medical College of Fudan University (The Formal Shanghai Medical University), Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

The present paper was to review the physiological bases of acupuncture analgesia (AA) on normal subject, patients, and animals. Effect of acupuncture on pain perception in normal subjects was studied and compared with sham acupuncture. It was shown that the analgesic effect of acupuncture has its physiological basis. Using neurophysiological, neuropharmacological, neurobiochemical and neuromorphological methods, the neurohumoral mechanism of AA was studied from the peripheral neural pathway of acupuncture sensation (De-Qi sensation in Chinese traditional medicine) to the central neuromodulatory effect of AA. It was indicated that needling of acupuncture point could activate the afferent fibers of peripheral nerves to elicit De-Qi sensation, then ascended mainly through the ventro-lateral funiculi, which conducted pain and temperature sensation upward to the brain, activated the antinociceptive system including certain brain nuclei, modulators (opioid peptides), neurotransmitters, through the descending inhibitory pathway resulting in analgesia. Especially the clinical and laboratory results indicated that the endogenous opiate peptides (EOP) participated in AA from the presynaptic level to the receptor sites, which provided a scientific basis for understanding the mechanism of AA. Substantial evidences have been accumulated that acupuncture has prominent analgesic effect, but it fails to give sufficient analgesia during operation. Some effective measures to improve the therapeutic effect of acupuncture, such as the combination of acupuncture with drugs, the selection of suitable EA parameters and optimal time spacing should be adopted.

Key words: Acupuncture analgesia; Pain tolerance threshold; Endogenous opioid peptides; Acupuncture sensation (De-Qi sensation); Neural pathway of acupuncture




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 15-27, 2002
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Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Communication Corp.
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Neuroimmunal Regulation of Electroacupuncture (EA) on the Traumatic Rats

Zhao, Hui, M.D., Ph.D. Candidate
Du, Li-Na, Associate Professor of Neurobiology
Jiang, Jian-Wei, Chief Technician of Neurobiology
Wu, Gen-Cheng, M.D., Professor of Neurobiology
Cao, Xiao-Ding, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Professor of Neurobiology

National Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Medical College of Fudan University (The Formal Shanghai Medical University), Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

EA has a wide range of function, many of them is mediated by the release of the endogenous opioid peptides. Using surgical traumatic stress model, it was observed that EA could improve the depression of cell mediated immune response. Based on the above results, we focused our work on the elucidation of the mechanism of EA in the central nervous system. The results showed that trauma amplified the activity of peritoneal macrophage, but inhibited Orphanin FQ and its receptor NP4 transcripts in the central nervous system, in the mean time IL-1b transcripts in the central nervous system was also augmented. EA stimulation of "Zusanli" (St. 36) and "Lanwei" (Extra.37) points could inhibit all the above responses, but it had no influence on the normal rat. The results suggested that EA could modulate immune response via the interaction between Orphanin FQ and IL-1b.

Key words: Electroacupuncture; Orphanin FQ; ORL1; IL-1b; Peritoneal macrophage; Surgical trauma




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 29-35, 2002
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Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Interlukin-1 b mRNA After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

Zhen-Feng Xu, M.D., Ph.D. Candidate
Gen-Cheng Wu, M.D., Professor of Neurobiology
Xiao-Ding Cao, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Professor of Neurobiology

National Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Medical College of Fudan University (The Formal Shanghai Medical University), Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

It has been reported that interleukin-1 b (IL-1 b) play a key role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Acupuncture is an effective traditional medical therapy in China. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on IL-1 b m RNA expression after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Using in situ hybridization technique, it was found that in the MCAO group the expression of IL-1 b mRNA was significantly increased at 2h, 6h, 12h after reperfusion in cerebral ischemic cortex compared with normal group. In EA + MCAO group the expression of IL-1 b mRNA was significantly decreased at 2h, 6h and 12h in ischemic cortex compared with MCAO group. The results indicated that EA might decrease the IL-1 b protein expression by reducing the IL-1 b mRNA expression in ischemic cortex.

Key words: Interleukin-1 b; Cerebral ischemia; Electroacupuncture (EA)




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 37-44, 2002
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Intravaginal Surface EMG Probe Design Test for Urinary Incontinence Patients

Aukee Pauliina, M.D., Senior Consultant
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Penttinen Jorma, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Immonen Paula, Physiotherapist
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Airaksinen Olavi, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Associate Professor

Pelvic floor training is a well-established treatment for female urinary stress incontinence. The purpose of this study was to test four different intravaginal surface electromyography (EMG) probes for biofeedback exercise and measurements. The study design was a comparison test. The study was accomplished in a referral on outpatient clinic. Participants were 9 urinary incontinent patients sent to physiotherapist for pelvic floor muscle exercise and 2 asymptomatic volunteers. The participants were asked to do pelvic floor contraction in supine position. The EMG activity of pelvic floor muscles was measured with four different types of intravaginal probes, and rectal pressure was measured simultaneously with a microtip catheter for controlling the pelvic floor muscle contraction force levels. Main outcome measure was the electrical activity of pelvic floor muscle contractions. The intraprobe correlation coefficients for comparing subsequent measurements ranged from 0.84 - 0.97, indicating adequate reliability. The results were affected by the location of the measuring electrodes, and the shape and size of the probes. No statistically significant differences were found between different probes. The compliance was best with L-shaped probe B and it gave highest mean EMG values so it was chosen for M-further development as a biofeedback-based home training system.

Key words: Surface electromyography (EMG); Intravaginal probe; Incontinence; Female
 


 
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 45-57, 2002
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The Neuroprotective Effects of Electroacupuncture on Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Monkey

Huanmin Gao, Master of Med. Sci., Ph.D. Candidate
Jingchun Guo, Master of Sci., Ph.D. Candidate, Lecturer of Neurobiology
Peng Zhao, Ph.D., Lecturer of Neurobiology
Jieshi Cheng, M.D., Professor of Neurobiology

National Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Medical College of Fudan University (The Formal Shanghai Medical University), Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

The present study was designed to investigate whether the electro-acupuncture (EA) is beneficial to extenuate cerebral ischemic injuries following the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in monkey. The results indicated that after MCAO, the EEG was severely inhibited, while the EEG recovery was slow after reperfusion compared with the control group. EA, given between the acupuncture points Baihui Point (GV. 20) and Renzhong Point (GV. 26) with a dense-sparse waveforms, which can be transformed into each other when dense or sparse wave is terminated, facilitated the recovery of EEG after ischemia. The local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) in the striatum decreased during MCAO, whereas EA improved the ICBF significantly. The neurological deficit scale significantly decreased after ischemia but increased in EA group. The brain swelling coefficient (right/left) increased significantly in the ischemia group, but EA attenuated this increase. The neuropathological study showed that EA could significantly decrease the infarct area (p<0.05) and increase the percentages of the residual cells in the ipsilateral striatum and cortex (p<0.05 respectively). These results implied that EA is effective to extenuate cerebral ischemic injuries following the transient middle artery occlusion in monkeys.

Key words: Cerebral ischemia; Electroacupuncture (EA); Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); Reperfusion; Monkey




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 85-94, 2002
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Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Communication Corp.
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Biophoton Emission from Fingernails and Fingerprints of Living Human Subjects

Kim, Tae Jin, Graduate Student
Nam, Kyung Woon, Graduate Student
Shin, Hak-Soo, Ph.D., Lecturer
Lee, Sung Muk, Ph.D., Professor, and Chairman of Physics Education
Department of Physics Education, Seoul National University

Yang, Jong Soo, Graduate Student
Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University

Soh Kwang-Sup, Ph.D., Professor of Physics
School of Physics, Seoul National University

Biophotons emitted from the center of fingernails and fingerprints from living humans are measured for twenty healthy subjects. We devised a dark box with a photo multiplier tube (H6180-01, Hamamatsu, Japan) whose spectral range is 300 nm ~ 650 nm and a mount with a light-receiving hole of diameter 8mm such that biophotons from the small circular area of nail or print of each finger are detected. Significantly more biophotons are emitted from fingernail than fingerprint for each finger of every subject. For thumb the average biophoton emission rate is 23.0 ± 4.5 counts per second, and 17.2 ± 2.0 counts per second from the nail, and print, respectively. There is a slight tendency that the little finger emits less than the other fingers. But some fingers emit far stronger than others, and it depends upon each individual subject which finger emits strongest.

Key words: Biophoton; Photo Multiplier Tube; Fingernail; Fingerprint; Human Skin

Correspondence: K. W. Nam (gyungun@chollian.net), Seoul National University 25-210, San 56-1, Shillimdong, Kwanakgu, Seoul, Korea; Tel: 82-2-887-9839. Fax: 82-2-873-7881



 
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 95-105, 2002
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Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Communication Corp.
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Effect of Melatonin and Electroacupuncture (EA) on NK Cell Activity, Interleukin-2 Production and POMC-Derived Peptides in Traumatic Rats

Ying-Su Huang, Ph.D. Candidate of Neurobiology
Jan-Wei Jiang, Teacher of Neurobiology
Gen-Cheng Wu, M.D., Professor of Neurobiology
Xiao-Ding Cao, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Professor of Neurobiology*

National Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine) Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P.R.China

The present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin (MT) and EA on the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells, the dynamic changes of the induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the content of POMC-derived peptides, b-endorphins (bE) and ACTH in spleen lymphocytes and in plasma of traumatic rats. The results showed that intraperitioneal (i.p.) injection of MT was able to recover the lower levels of NK cell activity and the induction of EL-2 production; MT could also decrease the higher bE and ACTH levels induced by trauma in spleen lymphocytes and plasma. EA needling of Zusanli(St.36) and Lanwei(Extra.37) points obviously improved the immunosuppression produced by trauma and antagonized the elevation of bE and ACTH contents induced by trauma stress in spleen lymphocytes and plasma. MT + EA could further modulate the depressed immune function, and there was a significant difference compared with MT (i.p.) or EA alone. MT + EA group further decreased the bE and ACTH contents in immune cells and plasma. Yet, the mechanisms of the attenuation of MT and EA on immunosuppression induced by trauma need further study.

Key words: Melatonin; Electroacupuncture; Surgical trauma; Natural killer cell activity; Interleukin-2; b-endorphin; ACTH

Correspondence: Xiaoding Cao, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China

*The project was supported by the Grants (No. 96-906-11-01) from the Key Project for the Ninth Five-year Plan of China.




Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 107-117, 2002
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Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Communication Corp.
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Comparison of the Effectiveness Between Manual Acupuncture and Electro-Acupuncture on Patients With Tennis Elbow

Paul Tsui, MSc
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Mason C.P. Leung, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

 
This is a single-blinded randomized controlled trial to compare the relative effectiveness between manual acupuncture (MA) and electro-acupuncture (EA) on the patients with chronic tennis elbow. Twenty patients recruited in the study were first introduced into control group for 2 weeks waiting period. Then, they were randomly assigned into either MA or EA group for acupuncture treatment. The acupuncture points of GB34 and ST38 were used in both treatment groups. In the MA group, the needle was retained for 20 minutes after the Deqi sensation obtained. In the EA group, electrical stimulation with 4 pulses/second frequency was applied and treatment lasted for 20 minutes. After 6 treatments within 2 weeks duration, significant differences were observed between groups favoring the electro-acupuncture in relation to pain relief (Pain visual analogue scale) and pain free hand grip strength (PFG). This study showed that electro-acupuncture is superior to manual acupuncture in treating patients with tennis elbow.

Key words: Manual acupuncture; Electro-acupuncture; Tennis elbow

Correspondence: Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Phone: (852) 2766 4831; Fax: (852) 23308656; E-mail: rsmcpleung@polyu.edu.hk
 


 
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp. 119-127, 2002
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Acupuncture Stimulation Inhibits Somato-Renal Sympathetic A- and C-Reflexes in Anesthetized Rats

Wei-Min Li, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor1 & Visiting Scientist2
Gen-Cheng Wu, M.D., Professor1
Hideko Arita, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor2
Kazuo Hanaoka, M.D., Ph.D., Professor and Chairman2

1Department of Neurobiology, Medical Center of Fundan University (Former Shanghai Medical University), Shanghai 200032, China
2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan

Stimulation of peripheral nerve afferent for example tibial nerve by a strong electrical stimulation (rectanfular wave with 20V amplitude; pulse duration of 0.5 ms, 0.3 pulses/sec) can evoke a discharge of the somato-sympathetic reflex which is recorded on the efferent of renal sympathetic nerve. The component of the somato-sympathetic reflex can be divided into two parts: one is related to the transmission of the myelinated afferent fibers with a short lantency (41 ± 2 ms) and is defined A-reflex, the other is related to the transmission of the unmyelinated afferent fibers with a long latency (210 ± 13 ms) and is defined C-reflex. In the present study, an acupuncture needle (diameter 0.34 mm) was inserted into the hind limbs of the rat, dorsolaterally at the area of acupoint: huantiao (GB30), at a depth of 4-5 mm and was twisted right and left twice every second during recording the somato-renal sympathetic reflex. It was found that acupuncture on the huantiao acupoint significantly inhibited both A- and C-reflexes. There was no different inhibition of the A- and C-reflexes by acupuncture on the right or left side. However acupuncture on the fore limbs of the rat dorsolaterally at the area of acupoint: quchi (LI11) showed no effect on neither A- nor C-reflexes. These results suggest that acupuncture at the same spinal segment of the acupoint inhibits the somato-renal sympathetic reflex.

Key words: Afferent fibers; Efferent fiber; Somato-renal sympathetic reflex; Acupuncture; Acupoint; Anesthetized rats.
 


 
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 27, pp.129-136, 2002
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Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Communication Corp.
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Effect of Taurine in Combination with Electroacupuncture on Neuronal Damage Following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

Jingehun Guo, Ph.D. Candidate
Rong Li, Ph.D. Candidate
Peng Zhao, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Jieshi Cheng, M.D., Professor of Neurobiology

Institute of Acupuncture Research, National Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China
 
The present study was to investigate whether taurine is beneficial to the neuroprotective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on rat cerebral ischemia induced by transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Histological change and DNA damage degree were detected by H&E staining and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DUTP nick end labeling) method. Taurine and EA combination group could significantly decrease the percentages of infarct area and cell loss induced by ischemic injury in the striatum (p < 0.05, vs singly treated with taurine or EA), and also the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells was smaller than both singly treated groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, immunoreactivities detection of Bcl-2 (which promotes cell survival), Bax (which promotes cell death) and P53 (product of tumor suppressor gene p53) showed that the combination group apparently attenuated P53 immunoreactivities expression whereas augmented the immunoreactivities expression ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in cortex. These results suggested that combining use of taurine and EA could exert better neuroprotective effects, which might be related to the regulation of apoptosis pathway.

Key words: Electroacupuncture (EA); Taurine; Cerebral ischemia; Neuroprotection

Correspondence: Fax: 86-21-64174579, email: jscheng@shmu.edu.cn