|ognizant Communication Corporation|
ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS
The International Journal
Volume 28, Numbers 3/4
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 28,
pp. 145-156, 2003
0360-1293/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Communication Corp.
Printed in the USA
Anatomical relevance of Some Acupuncture Points in the Head and Neck Region That Dictate Medical or Dental Application Depending on Depth of Needle Insertion
Dominic P. Lu, DDS
Professor of Oral Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Director of Medical and Dental Externship Education and Chief of Special Care Dentistry, Lehigh Valley Hospital
President of American Society for Advancement of Anesthesia in Dentistry
Gabriel P. Lu, MD, PhD
Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Director of Acupuncture and Pain Clinic, Montifiore Medial Center, New York
Many of the acupuncture points on the face, according to classic acupuncture textbooks, could be used to treat facial pain, paralysis, and toothache. But it is not specified which acupuncture point would be effective for which tooth. Many of these points, when used for the treatment of dental pain, often fail. From an anatomical point of view, we describe which acupuncture point to use for each specific area for effective treatment of dental pain. Also, we emphasize the importance of the depth of needle insertion, especially the necessity to touch the facial bone, for effective pain treatment. When performed properly, acupuncture can be very effective for relief of dental pain.
Key Words: Anatomy, acupuncture points, face, toothache, needle insertion depth, TeQi
Expression of Interleukin-6 mRNA in Ischemic Rat Brain after Electroacupuncture Stimulation
Jian Chen,1,2 M.D., Ph.D., Postdoctor
Cheng Huang,3 Ph.D., Associate Researcher
Da Xiao,4 M.D., Ph.D., Associate Researcher
Han-ping Chen,4 M.D., Professor of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Jie-shi Cheng,2 M.D., Professor of Neurobiology
Tongji Hospital, Medical School of Tongji University,1 National Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medial College of Fudan University2 Shanghai Life Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences,3 Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian,4 Shanghai, P.R. China
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a potent, pleiotropic cytokine that plays a central role in host defense and acute inflammatory responses, exhibiting pro- and anti- inflammatory activities. However, little is known about the effect of acupuncture on IL-6 in inflammatory responses caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The objective of present study was to investigate the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) on IL-6 mRNA expression in ischemic rat brain, by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. Data showed that EA stimulation significantly upregulated IL-6 mRNA levels in rat cortex and striatum following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (P < 0.05 vs. cerebral ischemia group, respectively), but nothing for sham-EA treatment. The result suggests that EA may partially participate in the regulation of inflammatory processes, and the mechanism of neuroprotective action of EA is implicated in modulation of IL-6 gene expression in cerebral ischemic injury.
Key Words: Cerebral ischemia; Electroacupuncture; Interleukin-6; In situ hybridization; Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
Detection of Ear Acupuncture Points by Measuring the Electrical Skin Resistance in Patients Before, During, and After Orthopedic Surgery Performed under General Anesthesia
Taras I. Usichenko, M.D.
Research Fellow, Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine Department, University of Greifswald, Germany
Victor P. Lysenyuk, M.D., Sc.D., F.I.C.A.E.
Professor & Chairman, Department of Non-Orthodox Medicine, National Medical University, Kiev, Ukraine
Martina H. Groth, F.R.C.A.
Research Fellow, Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine Department, University of Greifswald, Germany
Dragan Pavlovic, M.D.
Research Director, Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine Department, University of Greifswald, Germany
The aim was to study the detection of ear acupuncture points (EAP) by measuring the electrical skin resistance under general anesthesia. EAP with lower skin resistance were examined in 25 patients scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery on the day before, during the operative procedure and a few hours after it. EAP, detected in more than 25% of patients were further analyzed using a logistic regression model and compared to those in 15 healthy volunteers. The following EAP were identified in more than 50% of patients: Clavicle, Lung, Shenmen and points corresponding to the site of surgery. Point Clavicle was found in 16 patients (64%) throughout the study period. Shenmen was detected in 15 patients (60%) before surgery, whereas during and after surgery it was represented in 5 (20%) of them. EAP corresponding to the site of surgery were detected in 20 patients (80%) during the operative procedure. These EAP were detected more frequently in patients in comparison with healthy volunteers. The side of examination showed no significant differences throughout the study. The frequently found patterns of EAP with lower skin resistance in patients during orthopedic surgery can be useful for treatment of preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain relief.
Key Words: Ear Acupuncture; Electrical Skin Resistance; Acupuncture Point Detection; Orthopedic Surgery.
Address correspondence to Dr. T.I. Usichenko, Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine Department, University of Greifswald, Friedrich Loeffler Str. 23b, 17487 Greifswald, Germany; Tel.: 0049 3834 86 5848; Fax: 0049 3834 86 5802; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Protective Effects of Electroacupuncture and Salviae Miltiorrhizae on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rabbits
Xiang-Rui Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Anesthesiology
Han Lin, M.D., Ph.D. Candidate
Zhen-Hong Wang, M.D., Ph.D. Candidate
RenJi Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200127, P.R. China
The aim of present study was to observe the protective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and Salviae Miltiorrhizae (SM) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in rabbits. Acute ischemia/reperfusion of myocardium was set up by ligating left anterior descending branch of coronary artery in 24 rabbits which were divided randomly into control, EA, SM, and EA+SM group. Changes of plasma myocardial zymogram were found after ischemia in these groups. EA and SM were observed to decrease plasma IL-8 and epinephrine concentration and to increase 99mTc-MIBI intake ratio of myocardial mitochondrial, but enhancing or antagonistic effect between EA and SM was negligible. There was positive correlation between concentrations of plasma epinephrine and IL-8. The results indicated that EA and SM could reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and protect myocardial mitochondrial by reducing concentrations of plasma epinephrine and IL-8. EA and SM could reduce the release of endogenic epinephrine, which was one of the mechanisms of lowering plasma IL-8.
Key Words: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion; Electroacupuncture (EA); Salviae Miltiorrhizae (SM); Mitochondria; Interleukin-8 (IL-8); epinephrine; 99mTC-MIBI
Does a Viral Infection Cause Complex T. Regional Pain Syndrome?
Hiroshi Muneshige, MD, PhD, Associate Prof.
Katsuhiro Toda, MD, PhD
Hiroaki Kimura, MD, PhD, Assistant Prof.
Tomohiro Asou, MD
Department of Rehabilitation, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan 734-8551. Tel: +81-82-257-5566; Fax: +81-82-257-5594
In 1990 Omura, Y. reported that Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as the major cause of chronic intractable pain and its effective treatment using mixture of EPA & DHA with Selective Drug Uptake Enhancement Method. Subsequently among the other causes of pain, he included Chlamydia Trachomatis, Borrelia Burgdorferi, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, human Herpes Virus type 6, and Circulatory Disturbances. In order to test possible involvement of viral infection in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), a disease which usually occurs in the extremities, we did a study of 17 patients with CRPS. They were examined for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) by measuring IgG and IgM antibody titers, and 14 of these patients were also examined for Cytomegalo-Virus (CMV). As a control group 100 healthy Japanese employees at SRL, Inc. were also studied. In CRPS group, HSV IgG was positive in 12 of the 17 patients with an average antibody titer of 90.0 EIA value. VZV IgG was positive in all 17 patients with an average antibody titer of 26.8 EIA value. CMV IgG was positive in all 14 patients with an average antibody titer of 66.6 UA/ml. In control group, HSV IgG was positive in 54 subjects with an average antibody titer of 42.3 EIA value. VZV IgG was positive in 97 subjects with an average antibody titer of 26.2 EIA value. CMV IgG was positive in 82 subjects. There were no significant differences of positive rate of IgG antibody for the three viruses between patient and control groups. Although the difference was not significant, the average antibody titers of HSV in CRPS group were more than twice of those in healthy group. Antibody titers were almost equal in both groups for BZB. Possibly, some people in the control group who had latent virus, were also asymptomatic. In 2000, Takasaki, I. et al. In a separate animal study, inoculated with HSV Type-I the shin of the mouse causing allodynia and hyperalgesia (which are some of the characteristic findings seen in CRPS in humans). Also, VZV, which causes shingles which is sometimes followed by Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN), is in the same family of HSV. As PHN resembles CRPS in symptoms, it is possible that HSV contributes to CRPS. Therefore, virus infection theory is an attractive hypothesis that accounts for many enigmas of CRPS.
Key Words: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS); Herpes simplex virus (HSV); Antibody titer; Enzyme immunoassay (EIA); Enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (ELFA); Etiology
Address correspondence to Katsuhiro Toda, MD, PhD, (Present Address) Building 10/1N-118, 10 Center Drive Bethesda MD 20892 NIH/NIDCR/PNMB
Myocardial Protective Effects of Electroacupuncture and Hypothermia on Porcine Heart After Ischemia/Reperfusion
Xiang-Rui Wang, M.D., Ph.D, Profesor of Anesthesiology
Jie Xiao, M.D. Candidate
Da-Jin Sun, M.D., Ph.D, Professor of Anesthesiology
Renji Hospital, Shanghai Second Medial University Shanghai 200127, P.R. China
The study was carried out in order to observe the protective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and hypothermia on myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury in pigs. Blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and its isoenzyme (CK-MB), coronary artery flow (CAF) and myocardial heat-shock protein (HSP) mRNA expression were detected. It was observed that the MDA content increased and SOD activities decreased more significantly in control group compared with EA and EA+ hypothermia groups. CPK and CK-MB were found significantly increased in all three groups, but more remarkable in control group that in EA and EA+ hypothermia groups than that in control group 60min after reperfusion. The results indicated that EA enhance the myocardial protection of hypothermia and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The mechanism may be related to the improvement of antioxidation and increased expression of HSP70 gene.
Key Words: Electroacupuncture (EA); HSP70 mRNA; Superoxide dismutase (SOD); Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Hypothermia; Coronary artery flow
The Importance of Bi-Digital O-Ring Test in the Treatment of Multiple Hepatic Abscesses- A Case Study
Iwasa, S., M.D., F.I.C.A.E., Cert. ORT-MD (1 dan)
Orthopedic Surgeon, Director of Brazilian Medical Acupuncture Association
Neves, L.B., M.D.
Gastroenterologist, Medical Assistant of the Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Federal University of São Paulo- UNIFESP
Lopes, A.C., M.D., F.A.C.P., F.I.C.A.E.
Professor and Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Federal University of São Paulo- UNIFESP
The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test has been very useful in the identification of bacterial and viral infections, as well as other etiological agents, in difficult clinical cases. Case report of a patient with multiple hepatic abscesses (pylephlebitis induced hepatic abscess is the most difficult abscess to treat), in which the etiological agent was suggested through Bi-Digital O-Ring Test with excellent clinical evolution after modification of previously ineffective muti anti-microbial treatment is presented. 45 years old, female with a history of pain at right hypochondria for 15 days, with jaundice, oscillating fever and shivering. Computerized tomography showed liver with multiple nodules in the parenchyma with additional appendicitis. An appendectomy was performed with drainage of intra abdominal abscesses. Treatment with metronidazol, ceftazidim and amicacine was performed with no improvement while the general condition of the patient was deteriorating progressively in the following 3 weeks. Bi-Digital O-Ring Test was then performed to determine the etiological agent and the drug compatibility test among effective antimicrobial agents. Based on the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, the main etiological agent was found to be Enterobacter aerogenes. Amongst the three antibiotics that were being used, only metronidazol was effective and the other 2 was cancelled its effect. Based on Bi-Digital O-Ring Test findings two new antibiotics (cefadroxil and imipenen), were added to metronidazol and additional cilantro tablets by Hayashibara, Japan was given, and Selective Drug Uptake Enhancement Method performed, with excellent clinical, laboratory testing and tomography improvement within 10 days. Bi-Digital O-Ring Test suggested the etiological agent, and effective and mutually compatible antibiotics for treating the abscesses which resulted in a good clinical evolution, characterized by relief of fever and reduction of the hepatic abscesses in a short period and followed complete disappearance of hepatic abscess.
Key Words: Bi-Digital O-Ring Test; Liver; Pylephlebitis, Hepatic abscess; Antibiotics
Address for Correspondence: Rua Pedro de Toledo 920, CEP:04039-002 São Paulo- SP, Brazil