|ognizant Communication Corporation|
ACUPUNCTURE & ELECTRO-THERAPEUTICS
The International Journal
Volume 29, Numbers 3/4
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 29,
pp. 173-186, 2004
0360-1293/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Communication Corp.
Printed in the USA
Modulation of the Gene Expression in the Protective Effects of Electroacupuncture Against Cerebral Ischemia: A cDNA Micro Array Study
Jing-chun Guo,1,2 Ph.D. Candidate
Huan-min Gao,2 Ph.D., Associate Professor
Jian Chen,2 Ph.D., Associate Professor
Peng Zhao,2 Ph.D., Lecturer of Neurobiology
Xiao-ding Cao,1,2 M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., Professor of Neurobiology
Yao Li,3 Professor of Genetics
Jie-shi Cheng,1,2 M.D., Professor of Neurobiology
1National key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology
2Institute of Acupuncture Research (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (The Former Shanghai Medical University)
3Institute of Genetic Research, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
In the present study, a cDNA microarray technology was used to analyze the gene expression profile in ischemia and in electroacupuncture (EA)-treated ischemia. A focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model on Macaca mulatta was performed with a modified middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Among the nearly 8,000 genes, approximately 8% of the total number of genes examined were affected after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Major altered genes were downregulated. In EA-treated monkeys, approximately 10% of the total number of genes examined were affected. Major altered genes were upregulated, including signal transduction-, cell cycle, metabolism-, stress response-, DNA repair-related genes. One of the representative upregulated genes encodes insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was confirmed using in situ hybridization. Results showed that after ischemia/reperfusion injury, IGF-1 mRNA expression decreased in ipsilateral striatum, whereas increased in ipsilateral hippocampus. No expression changes were observed in cortex. EA treatment could obviously upregulate the IGF-1 mRNA expression in striatum, and further enhance its expression in hippocampus. Therefore, the data presented suggest a possible mediator underlying the mechanisms of anti-ischemic effect of acupuncture. In conclusion, the protective mechanisms of EA against stroke include several related pathways and gene expressions. Microarray analysis may provide a framework for understanding these complicated mechanisms and yield valuable, clinically relevant insights and potentially therapeutic targets of stroke.
Key Words: cerebral ischemia; electroacupuncture (EA); microarray; monkey; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
Managing Acute Withdrawal Syndrome on Patients With Heroin and Morphine Addiction by Acupuncture Therapy
Po-kuang Lu, C.Acup.
Medical Staff of Taipei Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Clinic
Former Research Acupuncturist
Drug Addiction-Breaking Research Group
Tsun Jen Chinese Acupuncture Institute, Hong King
Gabriel P. Lu, M.D., Ph.D., F.I.C.A.E., F.A.C.A.
Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Director of Acupuncture Clinic, Montefiore Medical Center
Former Director of Acupuncture Program for Alcohol and Detoxification
Bronx Municipal Hospital Center, NY
Dominic P. Lu, D.D.S., F.I.C.A.E., F.A.G.D., F.I.C.D.
Clinical Professor of Oral Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Chief, Division of Special Care in Dentistry
Director of Medical and Dental Externship Education
Lehigh Valley Hospital/Penn State University College of Medicine
President, American Society for the Advancement of Anesthesia in Dentistry
Winston I. Lu, Pharm. D.
Staff Pharmacist, Walgreen Pharmacy, El Paso, TX
Though there are articles and case reports about using acupuncture to detoxify and to break the narcotic addiction, few articles describe in the West about using acupuncture therapy to treat the emergence of acute withdrawal symptom due to heroin, opium, or morphine. Most often the method of treatment are using the methadone or benzodiazepine and phenoziazine drugs this article describes many years of clinical experience with no-drug approach to treat the acute withdrawal symptoms with acupuncture therapy. Unlike the drug approach, whish usually has side effects, there is no adverse effect with acupuncture therapy.
Key Words: Withdrawal syndrome, Addiction, Acupuncture.
Correspondence: D.P. Lu, DDS, Tel.: (610) 298-8805, FAX: (610) 298-8705 call
Left-Right and Yin-Yang Balance of Biophoton Emission from Hands
Joon-Mo Yang, Graduate Student
Chunho Choi, Graduate Student
Hyun-Hee Jung, Ph.D.
Won-Myung Woo, Graduate Student
Seung-Ho Yi, Ph.D., Research Associate
Kwang-Sup Soh, Ph.D., Professor of Physics
Jong Soo Yang, Ph.D.
School of Physics, Seoul National University
Yearlong measurements of biophotons from palm and back of hand of three healthy people were performed. The detection of biophoton was done with two photomutiplier tubes whose spectral range was from 300 nm to 650 nm. The measurement was done on a circular area of diameter 46 mm whose centers were at the acupuncture point Laogong (PC8) of a palm and the mid-point of a back, respectively. The emission rates from the dorsa showed strong seasonal dependence which is consistent with the active nature of Yang meridians, while the palm sides show less seasonal dependence as they belong to the passive Yin meridians. This could be quantified simply by the standard deviations from the yearly average: They were 47.6 counts per second (CPS), 66.1 cps and 66.0 cps from the dorsa, and 23.8 cps, 29.7 cps and 30.4 cps from the palms of subject 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Biophoton emission revealed qualitative individual tendencies: The subjects 1 and 2 emitted more strongly from the left dorsa, while the subject 3 from the right dorsum. The left-right balance of biophoton emission was well kept for normal people, which is in contrast with the severe imbalance for some stroke patients. Thus biophoton measurement has a diagnostic potential that encourages more studies.
Key Words: Biophoton; Meridian; Palm; Back of Hand; Yin and Yang, Stroke
Correspondence: C. Choi, School of Physics, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul, 151-747, Korea; Tel: +82-2-880-7750, FAX: +82-2-880-7697
Registering the Response of Tissue Exposed to an Interferential Electric Current Stimulation
Matti Kinnunen, M.Sc., Ph.D. Candidate and Esko Alasaarela, Ph.D. (E.E.), Docent
Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering University of Oulu, Finland
Electrotherapy is a treatment method in which an electric stimulus is used to achieve physiological changes in the body. When increasing the level of the electric stimulus, three sensory, three motor and a pain response can be found. In this paper the three sensory threshold levels (1st just noticeable weak tingling sensation, 2nd a very fine but definite tingling and 3rd moderate strong tingling) were studied with an interferential electric current stimulus. The interferential electric current can be achieved by summing two alternating currents with little different frequencies with each other. As a current source, the study used a value intended for interferential electric current therapy. The threshold value measurements were performed on 5 days to 6 volunteers. The method of limits is a frequently used technique for determining sensory thresholds where ascending or descending stimuli is used and the observer reports of the appearance or disappearance of the sensation, respectively. A Bekésy's algorithm is a threshold tracking method with a variable stimulus. They were used for controlling the interferential electric current stimulus, and hence, for studying the thresholds. By using the method of limits, the measurements were done at three sensory threshold levels at interferential frequencies Df of 10Hz, 30Hz, 50Hz, and 100Hz caused by two sine waves, one with a frequency between 2490 Hz and 2400 Hz, and the other constant 2500 Hz. In the method based on Bekésy's algorithm the interferential frequency Df was increased from 1 Hz to 100 Hz by changing the first frequency from 2499 Hz to 2400 Hz and the measurement was reported for all three sensory thresholds. The sensory thresholds for interferential current stimuli seem to be quite unaffected by the interferential electric current frequency among the healthy test persons, and no distinct interferential electric current frequencies at which the threshold values should be measured were found in this study.
Key Worlds: The Method of Limits; Bekésy's Algorithm; A Bipolar Interferential Electric Current Stimulation; Sensory Threshold; Tingling Threshold
Correspondence: Matti Kinnunen, P.O.BOX 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland Tel. +358 8 553 7686, Fax. +358 8 553 2774, Cell-phone: +358 50 4905608 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An Examination of the Relationship Between Five Oriental Musical Tones and Corresponding Internal Organs and Meridians
Yong-Chin Kim, Ph.D., Research Fellow
Dong-Myong Jeong, Ph.D., Professor of Electronic Engineering
Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Wonkwang University
Myeong Soo Lee, Ph.D., Research Fellow
Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University
The Yellow Emperor's Internal Medicine (Nei-Jing) describes the relationship between five internal organs corresponding to five different meridians and five oriental musical tones such as Gung (spleen), Sang (liver), Gak (liver), Chi (heart), Wu (kidney). However, there has been little research to test this relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine this relationship through applying sound stimulation for 60 seconds, comprising various frequencies produced on an electric organ (Gung: 261.6 Hz; Sang 29.7 Hz; Gak: 329.6 Hz Chi: 392.0 Hz and Wu 440.0 Hz), to 20 healthy adults by stimulating their ears (via headphones), skin (via speakers) and both. A significant relationship was found between the tones and the meridians as they are described in Nei-Jing. The greatest response rates were found in the following corresponding organic and musical tones: spleen/Gung, lung/Sang, liver/Gak, heart/Chi, and kidney/Wu. The traditional descriptions of Yellow Emperor's Nei-Jing are therefore consistent with the findings of this study. Further basic research may lead to the application of clinically appropriate tones in an acoustically suitable room following oriental medical diagnosis.
Key Words: Five Musical Tones; Nei-Jing; Meridian; Five Organs
Correspondence: D. M. Jeong (email@example.com), Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea; Tel: 2-63-850-6741. Fax: 82-63-858-6742