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Volume 23

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 1-8, 1998
0360-1293/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Modulation of Orphanin FQ or Electroacupuncture (EA) on Immune Function of Traumatic Rats

Du Li-Na, Wu Gen-Cheng, and Cao Xiao-King

National Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

Orphanin FQ (OFQ) is a recently discovered 17-amino acid neuropeptide[1-2]. In present paper, influence of intracerobroventricular (ICV) administration of OFQ or electroacupuncture (EA) on the surgical trauma-induced inhibition of the splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity in rat was observed. The results showed that administration of 0.1mg (0.0055 nmol) and 1mg (0.055 nmol) OFQ had no effect on the NK cell activity, while 5mg (2.75 nmol) OFQ reduced the NK cell activity in normal rats. However, 0.1mg, 1mg or 5mg OFQ were found to antagonize the immune function depression caused by surgical trauma. The NK cell activity was reduced in normal rats after repeated ICV treatment with antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) complementary to bases of translated region of rat OFQ receptor mRNA to block the translation of OFQ receptor mRNA into protein. EA stimulation of Zusanli (St. 36) and Lanwei (Extra. 37) points also obviously improved the immunosuppression produced by trauma. OFQ combined with EA showed antagonism on the suppression, but there was no significant difference compared with OFQ (ICV) or EA alone. When blocking the translation of OFQ receptor mRNA with the ASO, the OFQ induced anti-immunosuppression effect was completely reversed, but EA still improved the inhibition on NK cell activity. The results suggested that the OFQ played a role in the regulation of immunosuppression. EA could modulate the suppression of NK cell activity induced by surgical trauma. The mechanisms of the modulation of OFQ or EA on the immunosuppression induced by surgical trauma need further study.

Key Words: Orphanin FQ (OFQ); Electroacupuncture; Surgical trauma; Natural killer (NK) cell activity

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 9-17, 1998
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Ambulatory Device for Surface EMG Recording

Olavi Airaksinen1 and Kaisa Airaksinen2

1Clinical Director and Chairman of the Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and Professor of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
2Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN 70210 Kuopio, Finland

The principles of electromyographic (EMG) analysis can be divided into the following groups: signal or motor unit shape analysis, amplitude analysis, multi-channel or successive time difference analysis, signal frequency composition analysis, change of frequency time based analysis based on simultaneous amplitude or frequency based analysis or concentric and excentric work based shape and amplitude ratio analysis. The aim of this paper is to present an ambulatory portable device for surface EMG analyzing both for integrated EMG and for spectral analysis. The reliability of surface EMG recordings have established. The recent new technology gets a possibility to measure by reliable way surface EMG on-line during exercise, rehabilitation or occupational conditions. Portable EMG measurement unit and analyzing program seems to be suitable for documentation of the response of rehabilitation programs, effects of physiotherapy, analyzing the muscle balance and activity of sportsman and for documentation of occupational health problems. Automatic interpretation and wide data base for patient data makes the system useful in daily practice.

Key Words: Electromyography (EMG); Muscle; Rehabilitation; Muscle fatigue

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 19-26, 1998
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Acupuncture for Pain Relief During Childbirth

Kvorning Ternov N,1 Nilsson M,2 Löfberg L,3 Algotsson L,4 and Åkeson J1

1Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University Hospitals, Malmö, Sweden
2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, County Hospital, Trelleborg, Sweden
3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, County Hospital, Ystad, Sweden
4Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden

Background: There are few studies on acupuncture in childbirth despite the generally established analgesic effect of acupuncture treatment
Methods: The analgesic effect of acupuncture during childbirth was assessed by comparing the need for other pain treatments (epidural analgesia using bupivacaine, pudendal nerve block, intramuscular meperidine, nitrous oxide/oxygen, intracutaneous sterile water injections) in 90 women given acupuncture (acupuncture group) with that in 90 women not given acupuncture (control group).
Results: 52 women (58%) in the acupuncture group and 13 (14%) in the control group managed their deliveries without further pain treatment (p<0.001). The groups were similar with respect to age, pariety, duration of delivery, use of oxytocine and incidence of Caesarean section. Acupuncture treatment was found to have no major side effects, and 85 women (94%) given acupuncture reported that they would reconsider acupuncture in future deliveries.
Conclusion: Acupuncture reduces the need for other methods of analgesia in childbirth.

Key Words: Acupuncture; Pain; Analgesia; Childbirth; Delivery; Labor; Obstetrics

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 27-34, 1998
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Postural Equilibrium: Functional System and its Stabilization by Means of Osteoreflexotherapy

Inta Beldava, Georgs Yankovskis, and Maruta Vitola

Institute for Experimental and Clinical Medicine of the University of Latvia, O. Vaciesha Str. 4, Riga, LV-1004, Latvia

Our investigation have confirmed that the osteoreceptive sensory system participates in the polysensoric regulation of animal and human posture. Experiments with animals have demonstrated that the irritation of osteoreceptors by electric pulses leads to osteoreceptive response potentials of the same parts of the brain (Deiter's nuclei, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, cortical motor centre, etc.) which participate in the regulation of animal and human posture and other motion acts. Close functional relations have been established between the skin, bone, vestibular and muscle sensory systems in the brain structures where the osteoreceptive excitation converges. The studies of osteoreceptive sensory system have served as a theoretical base for new techniques of posture stabilization. These are based on osteoreceptive irritations caused by electrical pulses or by intraosseal pressure increase at injections of the physiological solution. It has been found that each bone has its own specific role in posture regulation. In all cases of bone irritation the posture stabilization of various degrees has been confirmed. However, it has been demonstrated that the most effective results have been obtained by affecting the processus spinosus of seventh cervical vertebra and the lower extremity bones, especially those of tibiae and calcaneus.

Key Words: Postural equilibrium; Osteoreceptive sensory system; Osteoreceptors; Osteoreception; Osteoreceptive excitation; Osteoreflexotherapy; Electroosteostimulation

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 117-124, 1998
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Effects of Electroacupuncture on Acute Cerebral Infarction

Quan-ming Si, Gen-cheng Wu, and Xiao-ding Cao

National Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

The present paper is to study the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on acute ischemic stroke patient and acute cerebral ischemic rat. IN clinic, 42 acute ischemic stroke patients were randomly divided into 2 therapeutic groups: drug group and EA+drug group. Neurological deficits of patients were evaluated before and after the treatment by Chinese Stroke Scale. The results showed that the acute ischemic stroke patients treated by drug or EA+drug were all partially recovered, but the clinical functional recovery in EA+drug group was significantly better than in the drug group (P<0.01). In laboratory, the model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used in rats. The somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) was recorded before and after MCAO. EA was applied one hour after cerebral ischemia and once a day after reperfusion fo 7 days in EA+MCAO group. It was shown that the amplitude of P1-N1 wave of SEP before MCAO was 100%. After MCAO 30 min the P1-N1 wave of SEP on the ipsilateral side of MCAO was decreased to 2.2 ± 3% (MCAO group), 1.9 ± 2% (MCAO+EA group); and then recovered to 25.5 ± 14.1% (MCAO group), 58.6 ± 27.2% (MCAO+EA group) after 7 days of reperfusion following MCAO 2 hours. The above results indicated that EA could promote the recovery of neurological function in acute ischemic stroke patients and SEP on MCAO rats.

Key Words: Acupuncture; Acute cerebral infarction; Clinical efficacy; Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 125-134, 1998
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Effects of Deep vs. Superficial Stimulation of Acupuncture on Capsaicin-Induced Edema. A Blind Controlled Study in Rats

Francesco Ceccherelli, Giuseppe Gagliardi, Renea Visentin, and Giampiero Giron

Observatory on Complementary Medicine, Institute of Anaesthesiology, University of Padova, A.I.R.A.S.

The modality of needle stimulation in acupuncture is part of the concept of the intensity of the stimulation, a variable indicating the dosage of the treatment administered. In this study we intend to compare the effect of superficial and deep needle insertion in the leg ipsilateral or contralateral to the paw treated with capsaicin. Testing was carried out on 100 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 120-140 g, divided into 5 groups according to the treatment received. Group 1 (20 animals) was kept as control; Group 2 (20) received ipsilateral deep acupuncture stimulation; Group 3 (20) received ipsilateral superficial acupuncture stimulation; Group 4 (20) received contralateral deep acupuncture stimulation; Group 5 (20) received superficial contralateral acupuncture stimulation. Results show that both acupuncture modalities are efficient when administered ipsilaterally to the paw where capsaicin is injected, while contralaterally only deep stimulation shows a certain efficiency. It is possible to conclude that deep insertion has a greater efficiency, probably because it affects a greater number of receptors; stimulation is therefore of an intensity greater than that seen in superficial insertion.

Key Words: Acupuncture; Pain; Neurogenic inflammation; Intensity of stimulation; Deep; Superficial; Control study; Methodology; Animal; Rat

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 135-142, 1998
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Use of Alternative Therapies By a Low Income Population

Michael Krastins, Elaine Ristinen,1 Joseph A. Cimino,2 and Ravinder Mamtani2

1Preventive Medicine Residency Program, and 2Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, New York Medical College, Munger Pavilion - 5th Floor, Valhalla, NY 10595

Patients in a family health center clinic were surveyed about their use of alternative/complementary medicine. These were mostly low-income individuals on Medicaid. The aim was to estimate prevalence and patterns of use of medically unconventional therapies such as chiropractic, homeopathy, and acupuncture in this population. Nearly two hundred patients (N=199) filled out questionnaires inquiring about medical conditions and illnesses, personal health habits (physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, etc.), and use of preventive measures or therapies that are neither taught widely in US medical schools nor generally available in US hospitals, and which we refer to as 'alternative' therapies (ATs). The term 'alternative' is not intended to imply that ATs are necessarily chosen to replace, rather than to be used in combination with standard treatments, although that may indeed be so in specific cases. Twenty-nine percent of respondents (58/199) reported using at least one type of AT, as defined for the purposes of this survey. Frequency of use varied somewhat, with greatest AT use reported by those over 29 years of age with more education and higher incomes (p<0.10, defined as X2sup tests at p<0.10). While no significant differences were found between AT users and nonusers with respect to exercise participation, alcohol intake or smoking, there was a difference with respect to the reporting of at least one medical condition (p<0.01). Among those who have used ATs, 90% reported more than one medical condition. Of those reporting no AT use, 70% indicated only a single medical condition for which they had sought treatment. In conclusion, use of alternative therapy (AT) appears to be common in all socio-economic groups, although AT use is apparently slightly less among low-income persons than in the general population. It is therefore important for physicians and other medical providers to be aware that their patients may be using ATs. Obviously, such practices should be taken into account in case management.

Key Words: Acupuncture; Alternative Medicine; Complementary medicine

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 161-170, 1998
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Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Activities of Tyrosine Protein Kinase in Subcellular Fractions of Activated T Lymphocytes from the Traumatized Rats

Xiao-Dong Cheng,1# Gen-Cheng Wu,1 Qiu-Zao He,2 and Xiao-King Cao1*

1State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and 2Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China

The present study was to observe the dynamic changes of tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) activity in subcellular fractions in the early stage of activation of T lymphocytes from normal and traumatized rats, and the regulatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on it. The results showed that the activities of TPK in membranous and cytosolic fractions of activated T lymphocytes were increased on second 5, and the peak was on second 45 after ConA stimulation. Then it was decreased gradually. Comparing with the control group, the activities of TPK in membranous and cytosolic fractions of activated T lymphocytes from the traumatized rats were inhibited in various degrees especially in membrane. EA of "Zusanli"(ST-36) and "Lanwei"(Extra 33) points could enhance the activity of TYPK in subcellular fractions of activated T lymphocytes from the traumatized rats. The results indicated that EA stimulation could prevent the inhibition of activation of TPK induced by trauma stress, and contribute to transmembrane signal transduction of T lymphocytes.

Key Words: Eectroacupuncture; Signal transduction; T lymphocyte; Trauma stress; Tyrosine protein kinase

The project was supported by the grants from the "Climbing Plan 8510-1" of State Scientific and Technological Commission and the National Natural Science Foundation (39670900) of China

*Correspondence: Xiaoding Cao, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032

#Present address of Xiao-Dong Cheng: Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang road, Shanghai 200031, P.R.China

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 171-184, 1998
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Analgesic Effect of Subcutaneous Administration of Oxygen-Ozone. A Blind Study in the Rat on the Modulation of the Capsaicin-Induced Edema

Francesco Ceccherelli, Giuseppe Gagliardi, Luigi Faggian, Fortunato Loprete, and Giampiero Giron

Regulatory Center on Complementary Medicine, Institute of Anesthesiology, University of Padova, -A.I.R.A.S. - Padova

The Authors have explored a new complementary approach, employed in the last 40 years for, among other uses, medical purposes: oxygen-ozone therapy. Anecdotal works have highlighted interesting results obtained in disk herniation with infiltration of paravertebral muscles with oxygen-ozone. To verify the existence of a nociceptive effect and investigate a possible mechanism of action, an experimental model of edema induction by subcutaneous capsaicin injection in the rat paw was employed. Oxygen-ozone, in different concentrations (10 mg/ml, 20 mg/ml and 30 mg/ml) has been injected both ipsi- and contralaterally to the paw 30 minutes before the administration of 50 mg capsaicin in 50 ml of physiological solution. Results show that the contralateral injection of the O2-O3 mixture modulates the edema response in the paw. Statistical significance, for the 20 mg/ml mixture, lasts as far as 45 minutes after administration of the capsaicin. No efficacy has been found for the 10 and 30 mg/ml concentrations. An injection of the same quantity of gas in the ipsilateral paw to the capsaicin-induced edema determines a worse edema than that observed in the control group, as if the ozone mixture added its irritative effect to that of capsaicin. It is interesting to note that the administration of oxygen alone cause a greater edema than the oxygen-ozone mixture.

Key Words: Ozone; Oxygen; Therapy; Pain; Counterirritation; Acupuncture; Rat; Animal; Hyperstimulation; Basic research; Pain threshold; Neurogenic Inflammation

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 23, pp. 185-206, 1998
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Estimation of the Amount of Telomere Molecules in Different Human Age Groups and the Telomere Increasing Effect of Acupuncture and Shiatsu on St.36, Using Synthesized Basic Units of the Human Telomere Molecules as Reference Control Substances for the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomenon

Yoshiaki Omura,1* Yasuhiro Shimotsura,2 Motomu Ooki,3 and Toshlyuki Nogucht4

1Director of Medical Research, Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York; President, International College of Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics, New York; Adjunct Prot, Dept. of Community & Preventive Medicine, New York Medical College, New York; Visiting Research Prof., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Manhattan College, Bronx, N.Y.; Prof., Dept. of Non-Orthodox Medicine, Ukrainian National Medical University, Kiev, Ukraine.
2Executive Secretary, Japan Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Medical Society; Senior Foreign Scientist, Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York; Vice President, O.R.T. Life Science Research Institute, 496 Higashi-Machi, Kurume City, Fukuoka-Ken, Japan.
3Senior Scientist, O.R.T. Life Science Research Institute, Kurume City, Fukuoka-Ken, Japan.
4Senior Scientist, O.R.T. Life Science Research Institute, Kurume City, Fukuoka-Ken, Japan; Former Associate Prof., Dept. of Biophysics, Nagoya University, Japan.

It is well established that the telomeres at the ends of chromosomes are composed of long arrays of (TTAGGG)n.(CCCTAA)n that form a nucleoprotein complex required for the replication and protection of chromosome ends. Throughout the cell cycle, telomeres also contain a protein component related to the proto-oncogene Myb that is known as TRFI (telomere TTAGGO repeat binding factor 1) that binds to the duplex array of TTAGGG repeats in the telomere. Previous studies have shown that TRF I appears to play a role in controlling the length of telomeres by acting as an inhibitor of telomerase. The amount of each of the TRFI(C-19) & TRFI(N-19) was identical to the amount of telomere of the same organ of the same apparently normal individual. Using synthesized basic unit of TTAGGG, as well as CCCTAA, as separate reference control substances for the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test of Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we were able to non-invasively measure the approximate amount of TTAGGG and CCCTAA units, in both normal and cancerous human cells. We examined about 30 apparently normal subjects (both Asian and Caucasian in both sex). The subjects' ages ranged from infancy to 76 years. Each subject was first examined using TTAGGG as a control substance and then examined using CCC7AA as a control substance. The amount of telomere in various cancer tissues are almost always higher than that of normal tissue of the same organ. The measured amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA were found to be in an average of 1500-1600 ng for human fetus or infancy and decreased with the advance of age in both sex with the exception of the heart, brain, eyes (retina), testes, and ovaries, which usually remain at the level of the infant, or reduced very little. Individuals in the same age group had a similar range of amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA in the same organ of the same individual, (except for those with unusually low telomeres often had chronic degenerative diseases, and those who had exception0y high telomere levels often had excellent physical conditions or mental acumen). The amounts of measured TTAGGG and CCCTAA molecules before and after acupuncture on St.36 in adenocarcinomas and small cell carcinoma coexisting in the lung of a 54-yr.-old Asian male were: telomere in adenocarcinoma decreased from 950 ng to 750 ng and telomere in small cell carcinoma decreased from 770 ng to 600 ng. When the cancer treatment is effective, the amount of telomere is reduced towards the value of the normal internal organ. We found that acupuncture on St.36 on apparently normal subjects increased the telomere levels up to a maximum of more than 2 times their telomere levels prior to the treatment, depending on the method of treatment, but frequently increases were between 60% to 100%. Strong Shiatsu performed on St.36 produced a somewhat lesser effect than acupuncture. We also determined the amounts of TTAGGG and CCCTAA molecules non-invasively in 3 mummified Egyptian sisters from the 8th Century BC on exhibit at the Museo Egizio in Turin, Italy in order to estimate their approximate ages (at the time of death). The amounts of body telomere were 500 ng, 550 ng, and 750 ng. For the prehistoric Iceman (about 3350 B.C. to 3310 B.C) discovered in 1991 in the Italian Otzal Alps at about 3,200 meters altitude, estimated body telomere was about 400 ng and telomere in brain and heart was 1600 ng, similar to that of a contemporary human being. Although these studies are preliminary, the findings may have potential applications not only in anti-aging, cancer treatments, and pathophysiology of brain and heart, but also for the estimation of the difference in the ages of cadavers studied in archeology and forensic medicine.

Key Words: Telomere; Telomerase; TRFI; Aging; Anti-Aging; Acupuncture; Shiatsu; Human; Heart; Brain; Cancer; Archaeology; Prehistoric Iceman; Forensic medicine

*Correspondence: 800 Riverside Drive (8-1), New York, N.Y. 10032, U.S.A.