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Volume 25

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 1-8, 2000
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Effect of Intrathecal Morphine and Electro-Acupuncture on Cellular Immune Function of Rats and Increment of mgk-Opioid Receptor mRNA Expression in PAG Following Intrathecal Morphine

Tao Sun, Li-Na Du, Gen-Cheng Wu, and Xiao-Ding Cao

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research (WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine), Shanghai Medical
University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

The present study was to investigate the dynamic changes of cellular immune function of rats with intrathecal injection of (ith) morphine and the regulatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on 'Zusanli" (St.36) and "Lanwei" (Extra 37) points. The results showed that ConA-induced rat spleen lymphocyte proliferation was significantly decreased on 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h, 24h, 48h after ith morphine (40mg/5OmL). The proliferative response was recovered to nearly normal on 72h. EA on corresponding periods could prevent the decrease of lymphocyte proliferative response of rats induced by ith morphine. The same tendency was observed on the induction of IL-2 production. Further study continued to explore the mechanism of the potentiating effect of g-opioid receptor in periaqueducial gray (PAG) and hippocampus on the immunosuppression induced by ith morphine at molecular level with in situ hybridization histochemistry technique. The results showed that ith morphine could increase the expression of p-opioid receptor mRNA.

Key Words: Intrathecal-morphine; Electroacupuncture; Lymphocyte proliferation; Interieukin-2 production; m-opioid receptor; In situ hybridization

The project was supported by the "Climbing Plan 8510-1" of State Scientific and Technological Commission

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 9-16, 2000
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Osteoreflectory Treatment of Alcohol Abstinence Syndrome and Craving for Alcohol in Patients with Alcoholism

Georgs Yankovskis, Inta Beldava, and Baiba Lîvina

Latvian University Institute for Experimental and Clinical Medicine O.Vaciesha Str. 4, Riga LV- 1 004, Latvia

Osteoreflexotherapy is used alone as a treatment used for alcohol abstinence syndrome and for alcohol craving by intraosseal stimulation of the processus styloideus ulnae of the patient's left and right hands as well as the processus spinosus of the seventh cervical vertebra and the manubrium sterni osteoreceptors. This is done by intraosseal injection of 0.5 to 1.0 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution during a period of 3 to 5 seconds. Craving for alcohol and depressed mood, strongly manifested Alcohol Abstinence Syndrome (AAS) symptoms before osteoreflexotherapy, were reduced in a most convenient and fast manner under the influence of two sessions of osteoreceptive stimulation. The withdrawal symptoms caused by alcohol abstinence decreased markedly during the first two hours after the first osteoreflexotherapy treatment, continued to decrease in the next 24 hours and by the time the second osteoreflexotherapy session was given, the withdrawal symptoms completely disappeared in 72 hours. The most slowly and least reduced AAS symptoms were asthenia and disturbances of postular equilibrium. Based on clinical observations, it is speculated that osteoreceptive stimulations destroy ethanol dependent functional systems and restore the neurophysiological and neuromediatorial integration of the brain in alcoholism patients. Primarily becauseo f these two cited factors, the patient can be freed of the craving for alcohol for several years, and he or she also does not suffer from depression.

Key Words: Alcohol Abstinence Syndrome; Craving for alcohol; Ethanol dependent functional systems; Osteoreceptive stimulation; Osteoreceptive sensory system; Osteoreflexotherapy

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 17-26, 2000
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Effect of Morphine and Electro-Acupuncture (EA) on Apoptosis of Thymocytes

Yu Zhang, Gen-Cheng Wu, Qiou-Zao He, and Xioa-Ding Cao

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China

The influence of morphine and EA on the apoplosis of thymocytes were studied to investigate the possibility of its involvement in the mechanism of the morphine-induced immunosuppression and the regulatory effect of EA on it. lh after injecting 50 mg/kg morphine subcutaneously into 3-wk old Balb/c mice continually twice a day for 5 days, thymus was collected and the apoptotic cell was detected by a method of terminal deoxynucteotidyl transferase-meditaed DUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL). The results showed that morphine significantly enhanced the percentage of TUNEL positive cells inside thymus with an appearing of apostolic DNA ladder after 24 h incubation. Treating mice with EA of "Zusanli(St.36)" and "Lanwei(Ext.33)" for I h after morphine administration decreased the percentage of TUNEL positive cells. EA also showed a regulatory effect on the increased the expression of CPP32 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 by morphine. The significant enhancement of hypothalamic CRF and plasma ACTU level by morphine and the antagonize effect of EA on it suggested a possible role of Hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal (HPA) axis played in the apoptosis of thymocytes by morphine and the regulatory effect of EA.

Key Words: Morphine; Electroacupuncture; Thymocyte; Apoptosis; TUNEL; DNA ladder; CPP32; Bcl-2; CRF; ACTH

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 27-36, 2000
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Effect of High or Low Frequency Electroacupuncture on the Cellular Actitivy of Catecholaminergic Neurons in the Brain Stem

Young-bae Kwon,1 Myung-soo Kang,1 Chun-jae Ahn,2 Ho-jae Han,3 Byoung-choul Ahn,2 and Jang-hern Lee,1

1Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Suwon, South Korea
2Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul, South Korea
3Hormone Research Center, Chonnam National University, Kwang-ju, South Korea

Although the opioid system plays a pivotal role in the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA), it has been suggested that other peptidergic systems also may be involved in the therapeutic effect of EA. Among several peptides for EA-induced analgesia, catecholainine (CA) is associated with the descending pain inhibitory system. We evaluated whether the different frequencies of EA modified the cellular activity of central CA synthesizing neurons using double labeling immunohistochemistry between Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) neurons and dopamine-p-hydroxylase (DBH)/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. We observed that different frequencies of EA increased the number of FLI neurons in catecholaminergic neurons, such as the dorsal raphe (DR), hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Are), locus coeruieus (LC), A5 noradrenaline cells (A5), and A7 noradrenaline cells (A7). In addition, different frequencies of EA significantly increased the ratio of colocalization between FLI neurons and TH positive neurons in Dr, LC and Arc. Only low frequency IA increased the neuronal activity in Arc. The ratio of double labeling between FLI and DBH positive neurons was also elevated at both LC and A5. These data demonstrate that different frequencies of IA increase the cellular activity of central CA synthesizing neurons, suggesting that the CA system plays an important role in EA-induced analgesia.

Key Words: Electroacupuncture, Catecholamine, C-fos; Dopamine-gkb-hydroxylase; Tyrosine hydroxylase; immunohistochemistry

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 81-90, 2000
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Regulation of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression by Electroacupuncture After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

Guang-wei Wei, Ya-lin Huang, Gen-cheng Wu, and Xiao-ding Cao

National Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research (WHO Collaborating Centor for Traditional Medicine)
Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China

The present study was designed to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) is able to regulate glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using reverse id transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in rats. The results indicate that after 2 h MCAO, GDNF mRNA and immunoreactivity profoundly increased in peri-infarct cerebral cortex, with peaks at 2 h after reperfusion, then declined dramatically at 12 and 24 h after reperfusion. Although EA given immediatelly after MCAO couldn't elevate the peaks of GDNF expression, it obviously raised the GDNF mRNA and immunoreactivity levels at 12 h after reperfusion, delayed the declining trends of GDNF mRNA and immunoreactivity levels. These results suggest that EA could upregulate GDNF expression after ischemic insult, elongating the duration of upregulated GDNF expression. This may be one of the mechanisms of EA anti-ischemic injury by augmenting endogenous protective mechanism.

Key Words: Cerebral ischemia; Electroacupuncture; Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)

The project is supported by key grant (No. 39730510), National Natural Science Foundation of China

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 91-99, 2000
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Experimental Study on the Low-Intensity Millimeter-Wave Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of Acupuncture Points

V.P. Lysenyuk, I.Z. Samosyuk, Y.N. Kulikovich, and A.K. Kozhanova

Ukrainian National Medical University, Kiev, Ukraine
Kiev Medical Academy for Post-Graduate Education, Kiev, Ukraine
Physiology Institute of National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine Rehabilitation Center "Aman", Pavlodar, Kazakhstan

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the millimeter-wave bioresonance therapy on acute inflammation and stressful conditions in experimental models. Licking reaction in mice as a component of the hypersensitive state evoked by subcutaneous formalin (0.03 ml of 1% solution) injection into the right hind paw was monitored. Different parameters of electromagnetic stimulation (frequencies 43 GHz and 61 GHz, intensities from 2 0.1 to 7 mW/cm2, the exposure time for 3 min. or 10 min.) applied to ipsilateral acupoint St.36 were studied. It was found that the millimeter-wave bioresonance therapy improved the condition of experimental animals, accompanying by diminution of licking reaction which was registered for very 10 min. during 2 hours after the formalin test start. Effect of 10 min. irradiation was more demonstrative than 3 min. (frequency 61 GHz, intensity 0.1 mW/cm2). Stimulation with frequency of 61 GHz suppressed licking reaction more deeply than 43 GHz under equal intensities. Most beneficial effects have been observed when minimal (0.1 mW/cm2) intensity of electro-magnetic stimulation was used.

Key Words: Electro-magnetic field; Millimeter-wave bioresonance therapy; Acupuncture points; Formalin test; Licking reaction; Parameters of electromagnetic stimulation

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 101-107, 2000
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Electro-Acupuncture Attenuates Nitric Oxide Release From Rat Striatum After Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

Peng Zhao, Zhi-Nong Huang, Gang Chen, and Jie-Shi Cheng

National Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important diffusible neurotransmitter, which also has neurotoxicity when it is overproduced. To investigate whether electro-acupuncture (EA) could inhibit the excessive NO release during cerebral ischemia, we detected NO directly by our self-made NO sensitive electrode. The electrode was placed into rat striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. NO level was significantly increased upon the onset of ischemia and reperfusion. EA apparently antagonized the ischemia-elicited rise of NO, although it could not suppress the NO level to baseline. The results indicated that EA might inhibit directly the elevation of NO following cerebral ischemia.

Key Words: Electroacupuncture; Middle cerebral artery occlusion; Nitric oxide.

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 109-115, 2000
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Analgesic Effects of Acupuncuture on Pain After Mandibular Wisdom Tooth Extraction

Toshikatsu Kitade1 and Hideaki Ohyabu2

1Prof of Department of Basic Oriental Medicine, Meiji University of Oriental Medicine, Hiyoshi-cho, Futiai-gun, Kyoto 629-0392, JAPAN
2Lecturer of Department of Dentistry, Meiji University of Oriental Medicine, Hiyoshi-cho, Funai-gun, Kyoto 629-0392, JAPAN.

We evaluated the analgesic effect s of acupuncture on postoperative pain by comparing patients who underwent routine tooth extraction alone (control group) and those who underwent tooth extraction in combination with acupuncture (experimental group) by the random allocation method. As teeth easy to extract, requiring no gingival incision (grade A) or those difficult to extract, requiring gingival incision or bone cutting (grade B). As local anesthesia, 1.8 ml or 3.6 ml of 2% xylocaine was used. The LI.4, Hegu on both sides and ST.7, Xiaguan and ST.6, Jische on the affected side were selected. Low frequency electrical acupuncture was performed. When acupuncture was used in combination with tooth extraction, 3 of 22 patients did not develop postoperative pain. In patients with wisdom teeth difficult to extract (grade B), acupuncture used in combination with local anesthesia decreased postoperative pain.

Key Words: Acupuncture; Pain after tooth extraction; Mandibular wisdom tooth; Analgesic effect; Low frequency electrical acupuncture

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 137-143, 2000
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Anticonvulsion Effect of Acupuncture Might be Related to the Decrease of Neuronal and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthases

Rue Yang, Zhi-Nong Huang, and Jie-Shi Cheng

National Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200032, P.R. China

To measure the levels of hippocampal nitricoxide synthase isoforms in penicillin induced epilepsy and to test the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on changes of these levels during epilepsy, we injected penicillin into rat hippocampus to make an epilepsy model and performed electroacupuncture treatment on "Feng Fu" (DU 16) and "Jin Suo" (DU 8) points in Wistar rats. Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA levels of rat hippocampus were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA markedly increased (P<0.01) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA significantly emerged during epilepsy, whereas no significant change in epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA was observed. EA inhibited the epilepsy and decreased nNOS (P<0.01) and iNOS (P<0.01) correspondingly but had no effect on the amount of eNOS mRNA. The data suggest that penicillin-induced epilepsy caused an increase in nNOS and iNOS, and the EA anticonvulsant effect might be related to the decrease of these nitric oxide synthases.

Key Words: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS); Epilepsy; Electroacupuncture (EA); Hippocampus; RT-PCR

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 145-153, 2000
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The Central Mechanism of the Depressor-Bradycardia Effect of "Tinggong(SI 19)-Quchi (LI. 11)" 2Hz-Electroacupuncture

Chang-jiang Zou, Hui Wang, and La Ge

Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100083, P.R. China

Roles of central adrenergic receptors and opoid receptors in the depressor-bradycardia effect of 3V, 2Hz "Tinggong-Quchi" electroacupuncture (the EA-DpB, i.e., the depressor bradycardia induced by electroacupuncture) were studied by intracerebroventricula (icv) injection of prazosin, yohimbin or propranol, naloxone or by intra-arachnoid (ith) injection of nalaxone. Voltage-dependent depressor effects were induced by 2Hz "Tinggong-Quchi" acupuncture. The depressor effect of 3V, 2Hz "Tinggong-Quchi" acupuncture was attenuated by icv injection of a b-receptor antagonist-propranalol, but was not blocked by the icv injection of an a1 -or (a2 -receptor antagonist prazosin or yohimbin. Icv injected naloxone but not ith injected naloxone blocked or reversed the EA-DpB. Results suggest that central P-receptors or opoid receptors in the brain are selectively involved in the Ea-DpB.

Key Words: The depressor-bradycardia effect; Electroacupunture; Naloxone; Prazosin; Yohimbin; Propranol

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 155-163, 2000
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Tolosa Hunt Syndrome - Intractable Pain Treatment With Acupuncture?

Johannes Nepp,1 Sabine Grdser Lang,3 Stefan Flarrer,2 Anna Spacek,4 Claudia Mudrich,1 Daniela Stockenhuber,5  and Andreas Wedrich6

1Dept of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, Austria
2Dept of Ophthalmology, 3Dept of Neurology, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria
4Dept of Anaesthesia, University of Vienna, Austria
5Dept of Acupuncture, L. Boltzmann Institut of Acupuncture, Kaiserin Elisabeth Spital, Vienna Austria
6Department of Ophthalmology University of Vienna A 1090 Vienna, AKH, Waehringer G 18-20

The Tolosa Hunt Syndrome (THS) is a painful granular inflammation of the cerebral vessels followed by pain and disorders of the extrabulbar muscles. The therapy consists of corticosteroids and analgetics. There was a 70 year old woman who suffered from painful paresis of the abducent and oculomotor nerves following an infection with Borrelia Burgdorferi - but without ocular symptoms. The treatment with corticosteroids reduced the palsy but she complained of excessively painful attacks in the region of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve. Opiold analgesic therapy did not bring about any relief Acupuncture is an irritative method with a physical effect on the nervous system: its pain-reducing effect is caused by the activation of transmitters like endorphins in thalamus and brain stem. Knowing this effect, the THS patient, after informed consent, was treated with acupuncture. To measure the extent of pain, a visual analog scale (0: no pain - 10: maximum pain) was used. Acupuncture was performed according to the empirical rules of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), during a period of 10 weeks and 12 weeks. There was a significant pain relief after acupuncture from VAS 1O to VAS 5. The effect vanished during the next four months. After a second series of 12 sessions pain reduction was reported from VAS 10 to 4. One year after the last Tolosa Hunt Syndrome - intractable pain pain strength ranged between VAS 4 - 6. Therefore acupuncture seems to be a good additional method for reduction of intractable pain.

Key Words: Tolosa Hunt Syndrome (THS); Pain; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Acupuncture

Correspondence: Johannes Nepp Dr. med. univ., Dept of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna Austria, AKH, Waehringer G 18-20; E-mail: jobannes.nepp@akh-wien.ac.at

Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Res., Int. J., Vol. 25, pp. 165-177
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Preliminary Results of a New Method for Locating Auricular Acupuncture Points

Chun X. Falk,1 Stephen Birch,2 S. Kelly Avants,3 Young Tsau,4 and Arthur Margolin3

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology Yale University School of Medicine, U.S.A.
2Japanese Acupuncture Center, The Netherlands
3Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, U.S.A.
4LKC Technologies, Inc., U.S.A

Auricular acupuncture is widely used for the treatment of cocaine addiction, and there is an urgent need to conduct controlled clinical research of this intervention. One impediment to this endeavor is the lack of an objective and reliable method for identifying the hypothesized active and control points. In order to address this issue, we conducted two studies employing a constant current electrical device and a novel probing technique. In the first study, we assessed the reliability of our technique for measuring electrical skin resistance points (acupuncture or non-acupuncture) on the body and auricles. In the second study, we analyzed and compared the measurements of skin resistance of auricular acupuncture and control zones in a group of cocaine abusing patients. Findings suggest that our measurement method produced reliable measurements, and that active acupuncture zones revealed a significantly different pattern of electrical skin resistance readings compared to control zones. This method may be useful for locating active and control points in controlled clinical trials of auricular acupuncture.

Key Words: Acupuncture; Addiction; Electrical resistance; Cocaine; Methadone

Correspondence: Arthur Margolin, Ph.D. Yale University School of Medicine SAC/CMHC, 34 Park St. New Haven, CT 06519 arthur.margolin@yale.edu, 2000