|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 1
Event Management, Vol. 10, pp. 1-22
1525-9951/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Attributes, Consequences, and Values Associated With Event Sport Tourists' Behavior: A Means-End Chain Approach
Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32819-1450, USA
A phenomenological study was conducted to investigate event sport tourists' behavior and experiences. Members of a sport fan club were invited to participate in this study. The laddering technique was used in the interviews for discovering participants' cognitive structures. The findings were presented on Hierarchy Value Maps that depicted relationships between attributes, consequences, and values in a means-end hierarchy. This study found that the study participants were highly involved event sport tourists. Personal balance and socialization were the essential parts of experiences that participants were seeking. Thus, event sport tourists can obtain personally relevant goals (consequences and values) through various means (traveling and socializing) that allow them to watch competitions and participate in related social events. The study findings contribute to the understanding of event sport tourists' behavior and the development of marketing strategies.
Key words: Small-scale sport tourism; Event sport tourist; Means-end chain; Personal construct; Hierarchy Value Map
Address correspondence to Po-Ju Chen, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32819-1450, USA. Tel: (407) 903 8029; Fax: (407) 903 8105; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Motivations of Young People for Visiting Wine Festivals
Tim Dodd, Jingxue (Jessica) Yuan, Charlie Adams, and Natalia Kolyesnikova
Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and Retailing, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA
This article investigates the motivations of young visitors (35 years old and under) at two wine festivals in Texas and Indiana. Fourteen motivational items were identified in which tasting wine, being entertained, and being with friends were perceived to be important motives for young visitors. In addition, differences were compared between the young and older visitors. Young people were found to attach more importance to enjoying entertainment, finding thrills and excitement, and being with friends. Interestingly, young visitors also viewed tasting wine more importantly than their older counterparts. The findings are discussed in comparison with those of the extant literature on event motivations and young visitors to wineries. Practical implications of the study's findings are presented.
Key words: Festival motivations; Young wine consumers; Wine festival
Address correspondence to Tim Dodd, Department of Nutrition, Hospitality and Retailing, Box 41162, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1162, USA. Tel: +1 806 742 3068; Fax: +1 806 742 3042; E-mail: email@example.com
The Politics of City Imaging: A Case Study of the MTV Europe Music Awards Edinburgh 03
Department of PE, Sport & Leisure Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
In November 2003 the city of Edinburgh hosted the MTV Europe Music Awards. This article discusses the event's contribution to Edinburgh's reimaging and local involvement. After outlining links between cultural events and contemporary urban policy, an in-depth case study charts the evolution of the MTV Europe Awards Edinburgh 03 and how it became embroiled in local political realities. The event became politicized because MTV was given £750K public subsidy to part-fund the show's temporary structure and the outside broadcast costs of a simultaneous live concert in Edinburgh's city center Princes Street Gardens. Officials argued that, beyond the local economic benefit - estimated initially at £4 million - this was justified as the event offered extensive local inclusion and unique promotional opportunities that would give the city's conservative image a contemporary edge. They believed Edinburgh's reimaging as an exciting short-break destination would occur because of the association with A-list celebrities and MTV's innovative marketing that connected with the global traveling, yet elusive, "MTV generation." MTV found Edinburgh an ideal city as its experienced events team eased production of their complex "live" television show, while its young people and iconic place features gave the show a distinctive narrative. The article's key finding is that MTV's desire for these place features to reimage their television show meant the event primarily benefited them and the local tourist industry. MTV happily fostered local involvement - creating memorable moments for participants - but their celebrity and place focus meant their voices were often marginalized. This was accentuated because the local newspaper, part of a group often critical of public sector organizers, emphasized: the event's cost and disruption, the inappropriate actions of public officials, and MTV's ticket allocation to corporate clients.
Key words: MTV; Image making; Edinburgh; Politics; Power; Media
Address correspondence to Gavin Reid, Department of PE, Sport & Leisure Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 8AQ, UK. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Measuring Motivation to Volunteer for Special Events
School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia
Special event organizations (SEOs) are formed and operate in a different environment. Due to the increasing scale and complexities of special events combined with financial constraints, these organizations are typically reliant on unpaid volunteer labor for a large number of activities during the event. The purpose of this article is to develop a measurement scale for motivation to volunteer for special events, which is a relatively unexplored area. It first explores several fundamental aspects of the complexities of the relationship between the volunteer and the employers of volunteer labor. It then presents a five-dimensional model to better understand the motivations of special event volunteers as measured by a 26-item scale developed on the basis of literature on special events and motivation to volunteer (MTV). The scale is tested in a survey and the findings are presented.
Key words: Special events; Pulsating organizations; Volunteer; Motivation
Address correspondence to Manjit Monga, School of Management, Division of Business, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, Australia. Tel: +61 8 8302 0425; Fax: +61 8 8302 0512; E-mail: Manjit.email@example.com
Implications of Climate Change for Outdoor Event Planning: A Case Study of Three Special Events in Canada's National Capital Region
Brenda Jones,1 Daniel Scott,1 and Halim Abi Khaled2
1Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Waterloo,
2Corporate Audit, Research and Evaluation Branch, National Capital Commission
Weather and climate play an important role in the success of many outdoor special events, including the quality of visitor experiences. In spite of the growing importance of event tourism to many communities in Canada and the US, research examining the influence of current weather and climate on event planning, or event tourism more broadly, is very limited. Consequently, the potential implications of climate change for event planning and tourism has yet to be explored. This article presents the findings of the first known assessment of climate change on event tourism in North America. A case study of Canada's National Capital Region was used to better understand the current impact of weather and climate on three high-profile outdoor events planned by the National Capital Commission (NCC) (Winterlude, the Canadian Tulip Festival, and Canada Day celebrations), and to assess the potential impact of climate change on the NCC's long-term event planning. Climate change is projected to have a meaningful impact on the success of some special events by altering the ability of the NCC to maintain ice-based attractions (skating on the Rideau Canal Skateway), changing tulip phenology to cause a mismatch with current Festival dates, and increasing the need for heat emergency planning during Canada Day. Possible adaptation strategies to respond to the challenges of climate change are also discussed, as are some general implications for event management.
Key words: Adaptation; Canada; Climate change; Event planning; Festival
Address correspondence to Daniel Scott, Ph.D., Department of Geography, 200 University Avenue West, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON Canada N2L 3G1. Tel: (519) 888-4567, ext. 5497; Fax: (519) 746-0658; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Managing Personnel in Major Sport Event Organizations: What Strategies Are Required?
Clare Hanlon and Bob Stewart
Centre for Aging, Rehabilitation, Exercise and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia
In Australia, the state of Victoria has been successful in securing many major sport events. Examples of such events annually conducted in Victoria are the Australian Open Tennis Championships, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix, The Melbourne Cup, and the Australian Football League Grand Final. Apart from these annual events, Victoria has also been successful in conducting the Bledisloe (rugby) Cup, the 2002 World Yachting Championship, the 2002 World Master Games, and the 2005 Deaflympics. Victoria was also successful in its bids to host the 2006 Commonwealth Games and the 2007 World Swimming Championship. These events have also attracted large audiences, which in part are the result of the efficient management of the organizations that coordinate these events. However, this begs the question: What underpinned the operation of such organizations, and were tailored or sport-specific practices incorporated for managing personnel? The purpose of this article is to explore the management processes of two major sport events, and examine the extent to which tailored or sport-specific management practices for personnel were incorporated by each of the major sport event managers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with managers from two event organizations - the Australian Tennis Open and the Australian Grand Prix Corporation - and supporting documentation was gathered to verify issues raised in the interviews. The findings revealed two distinctive types of practices. First, a number of systematic and tailored practices were used to manage personnel in each of these major sport event organizations. On the other hand, there were instances where guidance was lacking, and personnel were left to interpret detailed induction manuals with little supervision. As a result, many inconsistent practices were performed and personnel often felt alienated from the management team. On the basis of these results, it is recommended that more detailed documentation and guidance be utilized to manage the variety of personnel during the life cycle of major sport events.
Key words: Major sport event organizations; Managing personnel
Address correspondence to Clare Hanlon, Ph.D., Centre for Aging, Rehabilitation, Exercise and Sport, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9919 3268; Fax: 61 3 9919 3413; E-mail: email@example.com