|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 10, NUMBERS 2/3
Event Management, Vol. 10, pp. 89-101
1525-9951/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Attitudes Toward Sponsorship at a State Sports Festival
Windy Dees, Gregg Bennett, and Yosuke Tsuji
Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, USA
Sponsorships generate much needed revenue to produce the event, create awareness of the activity, and aid in its promotion. Because sponsorship is such an important facet of event production and execution, further investigation regarding the effectiveness of such activations on event consumers (attendees) seems justified. The purpose of this study was to assess consumers' affective and behavioral responses to commercial sponsors at a state sports festival. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three distinct factors: attitude toward event, attitude toward commercialization, and attitude toward behavioral intent. Regression analysis indicated that attitude toward commercialization and attitude toward event were both significant (p < 0.001) predictors of consumer purchase intentions at this state sports festival. Overall, the study revealed favorable findings for this state sports festival and its constituents. Marketing implications and future research directions are discussed.
Key words: Sponsorship attitudes; Sport sponsorships; Sporting events; Measures of effectiveness
Address correspondence to Gregg Bennett, Assistant Professor, Sport Management, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, 4243 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4243, USA. Tel: 979-845-0156; Fax: 979-847-8987; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Festival Stakeholder Roles: Concepts and Case Studies
Donald Getz,1 Tommy Andersson,2* and Mia Larson2*
1Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Canada
2School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University, Sweden
In this exploratory research, multiple case studies of various types of festivals in two countries reveal how festival managers work with stakeholders and who they are. Stakeholders' roles are categorized as regulator, facilitator, coproducer, supplier, collaborator, audience, and the impacted, and the results show clearly that key stakeholders take multiple roles affecting the organization. Practical implications are drawn for event managers regarding the identification, evaluation, and management of stakeholder relationships. Drawing on resource dependency and stakeholder theories, a conceptual model is presented that illustrates the conclusion that festivals and events are produced within and by a set of managed stakeholder relationships. Recommendations are made for development of this line of research and theory building.
Key words: Festival management; Stakeholder theory; Network theory; Resource dependency; Calgary, Canada; Sweden
Address correspondence to Mia Larson, Ph.D., at her current address: Service Management Institution, Lund University, Campus Helsingborg, Box 882, 251 08 Helsingborg, Sweden. Tel: 46-42-356621; E-mail: Mia.Larson@msm.lu.se
*These two authors contributed equally to this article.
An Exploration of the Influence of Prior Visit Experience and Residence on Festival Expenditures
Soyoung Boo,1 Dong-Woo Ko,2 and Michael A. Blazey3
1Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, The George
Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
2Department of Tourism Management, Daegu University, GyeongSan, 712-714, South Korea
3Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA 90840-4903, USA
The importance of tourism expenditure has been recognized by the tourism industry. The purpose of this study was to examine how the traveler's past visitation experience and the distance traveled from their residence influenced expenditure amount upon repeat visit to a festival site. Based on several tentative predictions, this study examined the patterns of tourist expenditures according to the variables of past visitation experience, residency, length of stay, purpose of visit, and selected demographic characteristics. An intercept technique was employed to query festival attendees exiting the second World Festival for Island Cultures-Jeju. A total of 356 usable questionnaires was used for the analysis. The results led the authors to focus on the possibility that the time spent on site and its influence on expenditures may be attributable to antecedents other than travel distance and prior visitation. Future studies on visitors' expenditure behavior in terms of psychological mechanism are indicated.
Key words: Community festival; Tourist expenditure; Novelty-familiarity; Prior visit experience; Residency
Address correspondence to Soyoung Boo, Ph.D., Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, The George Washington University, Funger Hall, Suite 301s, 2201 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Tel: 202-994-6629; Fax: 202-994-1630; E-mail: email@example.com
Predicting Exhibitor Levels of Satisfaction in a Large Convention Center
Deborah Breiter and Ady Milman
Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32819, USA
The objectives of this research project were to identify tangible and intangible elements of service that exhibitors encounter while they participate in a tradeshow, to rank their relative importance, and to measure to what extent these service elements were delivered by a convention center. By understanding the importance/performance aspects of service from the customers' perspective, and the performance gaps, convention centers will be able to design and implement quality service assurance programs to maintain a competitive edge in the marketplace. Additionally, this project sought to identify predictors of exhibitor satisfaction and intent to exhibit again at the facility.
Key words: Exhibitor satisfaction; Service elements; Convention Center; Future intent
Address correspondence to Deborah Breiter, Ph.D., Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Relationships and Networks for Shaping Events Tourism: An Australian Study
School of Advertising, Marketing & Public Relations, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia
This article shows how convergent interviews were used to identify themes and issues and refine a theoretical framework for multiple case research in the events tourism domain. In particular, the research examined how and why interorganizational relationships of public sector events development agencies impact upon events tourism strategy making in Australia. The body of knowledge about interorganizational relationships and networks and tourism strategies, including events tourism, provided the platform to study four research issues. Findings showed that the public sector environment, a diversity of strategy forms and processes, a range of network and relationship characteristics, and using incentives and disincentives for networks in strategy making were valuable themes to investigate in the case research.
Key words: Interorganizational relationships; Networks; Events tourism; Australia
Address correspondence to Dr. Robyn Stokes, School of Advertising, Marketing & Public Relations, Faculty of Business, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001 Australia. Tel: 07 3138 1850; Fax: 07 3138 1811; E-mail: r.stokes @qut.edu.au
Affective Event and Destination Image: Their Influence on Olympic Travelers' Behavioral Intentions
University of Windsor, Faculty of Human Kinetics, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
Despite the growth of academic and business significance of sport tourism, little is known about the direct emotional experiences with sport events and their impacts on travelers' behavioral intentions. The purpose of this article is twofold: a) to examine whether Olympic travelers' trip purpose and characteristics (e.g., age, previous visits, continent of residence) influence their affective event and destination images and b) to test the impact of affective destination and event images on Olympic travelers' intentions to return to the host destination, and to travel to future Olympic Games. The results revealed Olympic travelers from different continents had different affective destination images, and that older travelers felt more positive about the image of the destination. Spectators perceived the event as more cheerful compared to tourists. Finally, the perceived destination's excitement and pleasantness predicted Olympic travelers' intentions to return to Athens in the future. Specific recommendations are provided for destination and event marketers.
Key words: Affective image; Intentions; Mega-events; Previous visits; Spectators
Address correspondence to Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Ph.D., University of Windsor, Faculty of Human Kinetics, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 Canada. Tel/Fax: (519) 971 3102; E-mail: email@example.com
Mobilizing Marginal Resources for Public Events
Jörgen Elbe,1 Björn Axelsson,2 And Lars Hallén3
1Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Dalarna University,
2Centre for Marketing, Distribution and Industry Dynamics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden
3Department of Social Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden
Marginal resources are important for organizers of public events. In the present context, marginal resources are defined as resources that providers can offer to events in periods when these resources cannot be put to productive use in their regular operations. Such marginal resources are often mobilized through networks of social relationships when the resource providers regard a connection to the public event as being valuable. The mobilization of marginal resources is analyzed using a network approach and by analyzing the motives of the participating resource providers. Cases involving two public events are presented in order to illustrate the mobilization and the development of patterns and routines over time. The cases indicate that resources are mainly mobilized through networking. Building and using the legitimacy of the event are important factors in this process. The actors providing resources are motivated by a mix of interests, but most of them have an idealistic interest in the event. The mobilized resources are combined in ways that create economy of scope and scale for the organizer. Over time, a recurring event benefits from experience and learned behavior among the actors involved. It seems to be easier to mobilize resources in a community where the actors, and clusters of actors, are well connected with each other.
Key words: Events; Mobilization; Resources; Network; Legitimacy
Address correspondence to Jörgen Elbe, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, SE-781 88 Borlänge, Sweden. Tel: +46 23 77 89 31; Fax: +46 23 77 80 50; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org