|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 11, NUMBERS 1-2
Event Management, Vol. 11, pp. 3-11
1525-9951/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Access-A Research Agenda for Edinburgh Festivals
Jack Carlsen,1 Jane Ali-Knight,2 and Martin Robertson2
1Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Curtin University, Perth,
2Centre for Festival and Event Management, Napier University Business School, Edinburgh, Scotland
Festivals and events have assumed a prominent place in the social and economic fabric of Edinburgh, to a point where it now enjoys a reputation as a leading festival and event destination. In Edinburgh, as in other festival destinations, most of the research and evaluation effort has been concerned with "proving" the economic benefits of individual events. The limitations of focusing on narrow economic outcomes are now widely recognized in terms of the comparability, reliability, and utility of the estimates produced. While the attention of stakeholders has been on economic benefits, the very important cultural, community, and social benefits have been overlooked. Important issues such as engagement with the arts, community, cultural, social, and stakeholder benefits and disbenefits produced have yet to be researched in any systematic way. This article offers a comprehensive research agenda for key festivals in Edinburgh and acts an introduction to this special issue. The research agenda is based on published articles (inclusive of those in this volume), existing strategies and documentation, and the editors' knowledge of and engagement with the Edinburgh festival community. The agenda will be of interest to the numerous festivals and events stakeholders in Edinburgh as well as other destinations that are seeking to understand the social and cultural, as well the economic, dimensions of festivals.
Key words: Festivals; Events; Economic benefits; Social benefits; Cultural benefits; Edinburgh
Address correspondence to Martin Robertson, Centre for Festival and Event Management, Napier University Business School, Edinburgh, Scotland. E-mail: M.Robertson@napier.ac.uk
Managing Special Events in the New Era of fhe Triple Bottom Line
School of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
A new concept has emerged in special event research-the Triple Bottom Line (TBL). The TBL, borrowed from accounting and finance, amalgamates the social, economic, and environmental aspects of activities into one framework. Within the context of special events, the TBL has been particularly linked to their evaluation. In this conceptual article it is argued that while this approach to event evaluation is useful, it is imperative that the underlying principles of the TBL be applied to the planning stage of special event management. This article proposes a framework for this purpose that draws upon Stakeholder Theory. By using this framework, the underlying principles of the TBL can be implemented to special event planning so that the outcomes of special events can be enhanced for their stakeholders.
Key words: Special event; Triple Bottom Line; Evaluation; Stakeholder Theory
Address correspondence to Anne-Marie Hede, Ph.D., Associate Professor (Marketing), School of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, Faculty of Business and Law, VIctoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne MC 8001, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9919 4715; Fax: 61 3 9919 4790; E-mail: Anne-Marie.Hede@vu.edu.au
Analyzing the Role of Festivals and Events in Regional Development
Department of Tourism, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
While tourism has a long history of use as a tool for regional development, events and festivals are a more recent policy option. In both cases the emphasis is often placed on the potential positive economic impacts. In both cases there has also been little research conducted into a wider range of outcomes or into the factors and processes that contribute to these outcomes. This article examines the potential role of festivals and events in regional development with a particular focus on effects other than economic. The study reported here used a conceptual framework developed to describe regional tourism development to explore 36 case studies describing festivals and events in a regional development context. The content analysis identified 13 themes as associated with the effectiveness of festivals and events in supporting regional development. These themes were further organized according to their connections to the three key constructs of building social capital, enhancing community capacity, and support for non-tourism-related products and services. These constructs are then used to build a preliminary conceptual framework to understand the role of festivals and events in regional development.
Key words: Festivals; Events; Regional development; Community capacity; Social capital
Address correspondence to Gianna Moscardo, Department of Tourism, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia 4811. Tel: 61 7 4781 4254; Fax: 61 7 4781 4019; E-mail: Gianna.Moscardo@jcu.edu.au
Culture and Authenticity in a Traditional Event: The Views of Producers, Residents, and Visitors in Barcelona
Tourism Research and Marketing, Barcelona, Spain
Tourism is often seen as having a negative impact on the cultural content and "authenticity" of cultural events. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies on this issue and most research tends to focus on the attitudes of either the "residents" or "visitors" to festivals. This article examines the views of cultural producers, local residents, and visitors to a traditional cultural event in Barcelona, Spain. Although "locals" and "visitors" both tend to view the event as "authentic" and its cultural content as "local," significant differences were found. Residents tend to have a constructive view of authenticity linked to cultural and social references, whereas visitors employ a more existential view of authenticity related to their enjoyment of the event and experience of difference. Significant differences were also found between different visitor groups and between different groups of residents, suggesting the need for more sophisticated analysis of the consumption of cultural festivals and its effects.
Key words: Cultural event; Cultural tourism; Authenticity; Festivals; Barcelona, Spain
Address correspondence to Greg Richards, Tourism Research and Marketing, Martinez de la Rosa 40 (Pral, 2a), 08012 Barcelona, Spain. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Social Dimensions of Community Festivals: An Application of Factor Analysis in the Development of the Social Impact Perception (Sip) Scale
University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia
The increasing popularity of festivals and events, coupled with their positive and negative impacts on host communities, has led to a growing body of research on the social impacts of festivals and events. To date, work by several authors represents research in impact scale development specifically related to the social impacts of festivals and events. This article reports on the scale developed by Small and Edwards in 2003, now known as the Social Impact Perception (SIP) scale, which measures residents' perceptions of the social impacts resulting from community festivals. The aim of this study was to test the SIP scale using a larger sample, allowing for further refinement of the scale using exploratory factor analysis. This research represents development of the SIP scale, and is in line with the refinement of other event impact scales, to which factor analysis has also been applied. This represents the most recent stage of this research, which has the aim of refining the SIP scale and identifying the underlying dimensions of the social impacts of community festivals. Factor analysis identified six underlying dimensions of the social impacts of community festivals: inconvenience, community identity and cohesion, personal frustration, entertainment and socialization opportunities, community growth and development, and behavioral consequences.
Key words: Community festivals; Social impacts; Scale development; Factor analysis
Address correspondence to Katie Small, 98 Staples Street, Kingsgrove, NSW, Australia 2208, Tel: +61 2 4620 3281; Fax: +61 2 4620 3799; Email: email@example.com
Traditional Scottish Music Events: Native Scots Attendance Motivations
Leigh-Ann Mcmorland and Deirdre Mactaggart
Aberdeen Business School, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG, UK
Events form a key element of any destination's tourism product. There is a growing recognition of this sector's value and economic role, resulting in it becoming an industry in its own right. Investigating attendee motivations therefore becomes an increasing priority for event organizers and tourism organizations generally. Event organizers can improve the various components of their events through the understanding of attendee's motivations. The last decade has witnessed an increase in literature focusing on visitor motivations when attending events. However, there have been very few studies into visitor motivations when attending cultural events, particularly within the context of Scotland. Traditional Scottish music events are a fundamental part of Scotland's culture. This, coupled with the identification of cultural tourism as having "very good prospects" as a niche market for Scotland (www.scotexchange.net), further highlights the need for such a study. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine visitor motivations when attending traditional Scottish music events. Initially, a focus group was held to probe and discuss attendance motivations and to investigate views on the linkages between such events and the Scottish tourism industry. A questionnaire, comprising 15 motivational items represented on a 7-point Likert scale, was then distributed to members of two traditional Scottish music associations. The resulting data (based on a total sample of 110 respondents) were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out to identify groups of respondents with similar motivations when attending traditional Scottish music events. Key findings include a ranked list of visitor motivations and four discrete groups resulting from the cluster analysis. These groups were identified and labeled according to their dominant characteristics: "Modernists," "Family and Inspiration Seekers," "Social Pleasure Seekers," and "Thrill Seekers." The article expands on these key results, focusing on a discussion of the dominant characteristics within each of the four cluster groups. The article also discusses respondents' views on the linkages between traditional Scottish music events and their role within the Scottish tourism product and cultural tourism. The majority of respondents do believe there is an association between traditional Scottish music events and Scottish tourism; however, debate emerges regarding the quality and range of events available to visitors to Scotland. This exploratory study provides cultural music event organizers with a greater understanding of visitor motivations and characteristics within the context of Scotland by breaking the visitors down into distinct motivational groups. This research adds to the body of literature in the area of visitor motivations when attending events, specifically cultural and music events. This work also contributes to the body of research that has utilized cluster analysis as a segmentation tool. Further research will be recommended in relation to the cluster groups and the portfolio of events currently available as part of the Scottish tourism product.
Key words: Tourism; Events; Attendance motivations; Cultural tourism; Community involvement; Cluster analysis
Address correspondence to Deirdre Mactaggart, Aberdeen Business School, Garthdee II, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG, UK. Tel: 01224 263010; Fax: 01224 263038; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Knowledge Mapping for Safe Festivals and Events: An Ontological Approach
Neha Singh,* Pradeep Racherla, and Clark Hu
National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Knowledge has been viewed as one of the most important resources in organizations. Organizations are seen as knowledge creating entities where managing and sharing this knowledge is considered as the fundamental basis for creating sustainable competitive advantages. A consequence of this realization is the tremendous growth in various methodologies and tools to manage organizational knowledge for the benefit of the organization. Ontologies are major tools that enable management of vast amounts of data and information to create concrete knowledge structures, which aid users in exploring and understanding domain knowledge. The objectives of this article are: (1) to review the theoretical background of ontology and knowledge mapping, and (2) to present the procedures of constructing ontology for the domain of safety and security in event management. The ontology forms the basis to develop eSAFE (online knowledge-based system for safe festivals and events), a platform for event and festival management professionals to share and advance their domain knowledge. The ontology provides a platform for knowledge mapping and knowledge search and retrieval.
Key words: Knowledge management; Ontology; Knowledge mapping; eSAFE and Protégé
Address correspondence to Clark Hu, Associate Professor, National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Temple University, 1700 North Broad Street, Suite 201-C, Philadelphia, PA 19121, USA. Tel: 215-204-1994; Fax: 215-204-8705; E-mail: email@example.com
*Current address: The Collins School of Hospitality Management, California State University (Cal Poly, Pomona), Pomona, CA 91768, USA
Events Framed by the Mass Media: Media Coverage and Effects of America's Cup Preregatta in Sweden
Department of Service Management, Campus Helsingborg, Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden
There are usually two arguments for the support of public opinion in arranging events: the event will yield economic benefits, and the event will attract journalists and gain media exposure leading to positive image effects. In this article the latter argument is analyzed in relation to earlier research in media and communication studies and an empirical media analysis of the America's Cup preregatta that took place in Malmö, Sweden in 2005 is presented. It is concluded that generally held belief in media effects of events is oversimplified and that there is a need to develop a political and public understanding of these processes. The empirical analysis shows that the preregatta media coverage was negative regionally while appearing neutral at the national and international levels.
Key words: Media effects; Events; News management; Media analysis; Public relations; Destination image
Address correspondence to Jesper Falkheimer, Ph.D., Assistant Professor in Media and Communication Studies, Department of Service Management, Box 822, Campus Helsingborg, Lund University, 251 08 Helsingborg, Sweden. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Identifying Social Consequences of Rural Events
School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Events have a range of consequences for host communities. While a number of researchers have focused upon impact assessment, there are some fundamental issues that require addressing. Firstly, most research investigating the social impacts of events use predefined quantitative assessment techniques or tools. These tools limit the ability of respondents to indicate the diversity of social consequences that they may experience. Secondly, the labeling of social consequences as positive or negative fails to acknowledge the "shades of gray" that may exist. Thirdly, there is a lack of research specifically investigating the social consequences of events within rural communities. Therefore, there is a need to identify a range of social consequences that occur as a result of hosting events, especially within rural communities. This is best achieved from the perspective of those experiencing the phenomena, thus qualitatively. This article aims to address these gaps by examining the social consequences of rural events from an event stakeholder perspective within three rural communities of Southwest Queensland, Australia. Specifically, this article reports on a number of social consequences identified that have been underutilized or discussed within the existing literature.
Key words: Social consequences; Rural events
Address correspondence to Sacha Reid at her current address: Research Analyst, DTZ, Brisbane, Australia. E-mail: Sacha.Reid@dtz.com.au