|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 11, NUMBER 3
Event Management, Vol. 11, pp. 99-108
1525-9951/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Investing in an Event: The Case of a Sledge Dog Race in Norway "The Finnmarksløpet"
Nina K. Prebensen
University of Tromsø, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Institute of Marketing and Social Sciences, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
Finnmark University College, Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Alta, Norway
The present article examines what investors do when they invest. Recent research and literature on investment are generally based on economic arguments: expectation of future return on investment. The present work is based on Holt's 1995 typology of consumption practices and the ideas presented in a 2000 study of Allen and McGoun that investing and consumption may not be as different as traditional economic theory has understood them to be. This article explores the act of investment in an event, a sledge dog race in the northern part of Norway, in terms of the purpose (why invest) and the structure (how) of the investment. Results and discussion confirm the suggestions that investment can be seen in perspectives other than purely economic.
Key words: Event investment; Investment purpose; Investment structure; Norway
Address correspondence to Nina K. Prebensen, University of Tromsø, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Institute of Marketing and Social Sciences, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. Tel: (++ 47) 77 646766; Fax: (++ 47) 78 43 44 38; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Differences in Arts Festival Visitors Based on Level of Past Experience
Marian H. Wooten1 and William C. Norman2
1Department of Recreation Administration, Eastern Illinois
University, Charleston, IL, USA
2Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
This study examined differences in visitors to the Kentuck Festival of the Arts based on past experience (i.e., number of past visits) at the festival. Two groups of visitors were identified: First-Timers (who visited for the first time in 2005) and Repeaters (who had visited multiple times, including 2005). Visitors were compared based on demographic characteristics, travel characteristics, motivations for attendance, and perceived authenticity or uniqueness of festival products. Visitor groups did not differ with respect to demographics (except sex), but they did differ based on travel characteristics, with First-Timers taking the longest trips to attend. As indicated in past studies, analysis of motivations revealed that socialization was found to be more important to visitors with past experience than first-time visitors. Perceptions of product uniqueness did not differ significantly between First-Timers and Repeaters; however, both First-Timers and Repeaters did feel that festival products could not be obtained in certain retail venues, indicating they were conscious of some level of product uniqueness. Thus, findings indicated that both social opportunities and unique products could be employed as marketing tools.
Key words: Visitor differences; Past experience; Arts festival; Marketing tools
Address correspondence to Marian H. Wooten, Ph.D., Department of Recreation Administration, Eastern Illinois University, 1316 Douglas Drive, Charleston, IL 61920, USA. Tel: 217-581-6421; Fax: 217-581-7804; E-mail: email@example.com
Sensation Seeking, Culture, and the Valuation of Experiential Services
Jerome F. Agrusa,1 Glenn Maples,2 Miranda Kitterlin,3 and John R. Tanner2
1Travel Industry Management, College of Business Administration,
Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, HI, USA
2Business, Systems, Analysis, & Technology, B.I. Moody III College of Business, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA
3Marketing & Hospitality, B.I. Moody III College of Business, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA
The Honolulu Marathon provides a significant economic impact to the state of Hawaii's economy. This type of service may be classified as an experiential service - customers largely purchase these services due to the value of the experiences they provide. This research proposes a framework based on cultural and personality traits to explain differing participant valuation of the service. Consistent with this framework, higher valuation is associated with collectivism and high sensation seeking. Implications for practitioners are provided. Analyses and findings are based on the questionnaire responses of 932 Japanese participants and 605 Western participants in the 2006 Honolulu Marathon.
Key words: Honolulu Marathon; Collectivism; Experiential service
Address correspondence to John R. Tanner, Business, Systems, Analysis, & Technology, B.I. Moody III College of Business, P.O. Box 43930 University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-3930, USA. Tel: 337-482-6149; Fax: 337-482-5070; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Conformity and Resistance: Preparing a Francophone Sporting Event in North America
Milena M. Parent1 and Trevor Slack2
1Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Human Kinetics, University
of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Organizing committees of large-scale sporting events face conflicting pressures from their environment when preparing to host the events, thereby leading them to conform to certain pressures and resist others. Writers on organizations, primarily institutional theorists, have mainly examined conformity, not resistance. This article seeks to examine the competing conforming and resistance pressures for an organizing committee. Findings from a case study relating to the Jeux de la Francophonie, or Games of La Francophonie, highlighted the presence of conflicting pressures between the North American context of the organizing committee and the European, Francophonie context of the event's international body, which impacted goal setting, funding/commercialization, athlete/artist caliber, sanctioning, and international government relationship and VIP treatment. The nature of the event, the stakeholders involved, and the event's setting or context were found to be interrelated sources of pressures on the organizing committee.
Key words: Conformity; Resistance; Institutional theory; Events; Case study; Francophone; Francophonie; Stakeholders; Pressure
Address correspondence to Milena M. Parent, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Human Kinetics, 125 University St., Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada. Tel: 613-562-5800, ext. 2984; Fax: 613-562-5497; E-mail: email@example.com
Impacts of Events on the Brand Germany: Perspectives From Younger Korean Consumers
Jong Woo Jun and Hyoungdong Lee
Department of Advertising, College of Journalism and Communications, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
This study explores the impacts of various events on country as a brand. Collecting Korean college students as a sample, this study is designed to examine the roles of events on attitudes toward Germany and subsequent relationships between brand Germany and German companies and visit intentions. This study categorizes various German events into four groups: sports events, business events, cultural festivals, and art events. The findings indicate that the more consumers develop favorable attitudes toward special events held in Germany (e.g., the 2006 FIFA World Cup Soccer Games and art events), the more likely they are to have positive attitudes toward Germany, which in turn leads to more favorable attitudes toward German companies and visit intentions.
Key words: World Cup Soccer Games; Art event; Country brand; and Country-of-origin company
Address correspondence to Jong Woo Jun, Ph.D., Department of Advertising, College of Journalism and Communications, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118400, Gainesville, FL 32611-8400, USA. Tel: (352) 846-1060; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org