|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 11, NUMBER 4
Event Management, Vol. 11, pp. 161-177
1525-9951/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Are You Being Served? The Impacts of a Tourist Hallmark Event on the Place Meanings of Residents
Christopher T. Boyko
Lancaster Institute for the Contemporary Arts, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
Tourist hallmark events can dramatically impact a host community and their livelihood. Previous research, however, has not examined hallmark event impacts on residents' place meanings. A case study was undertaken in Brugge, Belgium, to understand how the 2002 European Capital of Culture program impacted the place meanings of residents. A mail survey and interviews examined residents' perceptions of the hallmark event and the city. Findings revealed that residents did not feel their needs were being met before and during the hallmark event. Many residents believed that tourists were the main focus of the cultural year and that host ideas and local culture were spurned in favor of outside initiatives. Meanings for Brugge were mainly negative or neutral as a result. Recommendations from this study include working with hosts early on in hallmark event organization and carefully considering the short- and long-term consequences of hosting hallmark events in small, tourist-historic cities.
Key words: Tourist hallmark events; European Capital of Culture; Place meaning; Case study; Residents
Address correspondence to Christopher T. Boyko, Lancaster Institute for the Contemporary Arts, Lancaster University, Room 85a County South, Bailrigg, Lancaster, UK LA1 4YW. Tel: +44 (0)1524 593431; Fax: +44 (0)1524 593071; E-mail: email@example.com
Understanding Novelty-Seeking Behavior in Meeting Tourism: A Measurement Development Approach
Ahmad Azmi M. Ariffin
School of Business Management, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
The main purpose of this article is to define the construct of novelty in the corporate meeting tourism perspective and to develop a preliminary instrument to measure novelty preference for corporate meeting destination choice. This article discusses in great detail literature relevant to novelty-seeking behavior in the context of marketing and tourism. Based on the literature and protocol analysis technique, the construct of novelty preference was found to comprise of three overlapping dimensions, namely destination familiarity, destination uniqueness, and destination excitement. Thus, novelty preference in this article is defined as the extent to which a corporate meeting planner prefers a destination setting that creates an unusual, unique, and exciting meeting travel experience. It was measured by calculating the mean responses to 19 items along a 6-point scale, where 6 depicted a very strong novelty preference for meeting destination while 1 depicted a very weak novelty preference. The initial scale was demonstrated to have content validity by panel of experts.
Key words: Novelty preference; Novelty seeking; Corporate meeting market; MICE tourism
Address correspondence to Ahmad Azmi M. Ariffin, Ph.D., Lecturer, School of Business Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Malaysia. Tel: 603-8921 3780; Fax: 603-8921 3163; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Measuring Volunteer Motivation in Mega-Sporting Events
Chrysostomos Giannoulakis,1 Chien-Hsin Wang,2 and Dianna Gray1
1School of Sport & Exercise Science, University of Northern
Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA
2Department of Leisure, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan
Volunteers are a core component of sport service delivery and an important element of the Olympic Games culture. However, little research has addressed the specific characteristics and experiences of individuals who dedicate their time and effort to volunteer at mega-sporting events, more specifically at the Olympic Games. The current study aims to contribute to the literature so that more effective volunteer recruitment and management strategies can be fostered. The purpose of the study was to investigate motives of volunteers at the Athens 2004 Olympics and examine the factorial structure of the Olympic Volunteer Motivation Scale (OVMS). Data were gathered from a volunteer sample of 146 individuals who offered their services in the Olympic Aquatic Center and the Olympic Village. Scores from the 18-item OVMS demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability. The extracted factors (Olympic related, Egoistic, and Purposive) were well defined and interpreted in terms of the items included. Given the fact that volunteers at the Olympic Games might be motivated by reasons that differ from those at local sporting events, the OVMS will provide information that could further support the Olympic volunteer movement in terms of effective volunteer recruitment and satisfaction.
Key words: Sport volunteer management; Volunteer motivation; Olympic Games
Address correspondence to Chrysostomos Giannoulakis at his new address: Department of Recreation & Sport Management, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453035, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3035, USA. Tel: 970-324-5785; E-mail: email@example.com
Film Festivals: An Empirical Study of Factors for Success
Sandra Grunwell1 and Inhyuck "Steve" Ha2
1Hospitality and Tourism Management, Western Carolina University,
Cullowhee, NC, USA
2Economics, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, USA
Film festivals have become an increasingly popular method of generating economic benefit to communities, yet there is little mention of this festival segment in the academic literature. Seen as a meeting place between filmmakers, distributors, and viewers, film festivals can be an important factor in enlivening local cultural life, building a town, city, or region's image, and fostering its attractiveness for tourism and thus its economic development. In addition to providing a cultural experience for the local community, and providing economic benefits as a tourist draw, film festivals provide a service to the film industry by supplying a forum for filmmakers to show their films and film buyers and distributors to view them. This article reports on a study of film festival attendees that was undertaken to evaluate the success of a regional film festival and assist film festival managers and sponsors in future planning. Attendee characteristics and festival experience were evaluated, as well the festival's economic impact on the local community. The article also provides an overview of unique characteristics of the film festival industry.
Key words: Film festival; Economic impact
Address correspondence to Sandra Grunwell, Hospitality and Tourism
Management, Department of Business Administration and Law, Western Carolina
University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA. Tel: (828) 227-2154; Fax: (828) 227-7417;