|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1
Event Management, Vol. 12, pp. 1-17
1525-9951/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Sustainable Festivals: On Becoming an Institution
Donald Getz1,2,3 and Tommy D. Andersson4
1Professor, The University of Queensland,
School of Tourism, Australia
2Professor, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Canada
3Visiting Professor, Centre for Tourism at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden
4School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
This article conceptually addresses the sustainability of festivals from the perspective of the organizations providing them, specifically in the context of how event organizations can become permanent institutions. Festivals and other recurring events are often viewed as tourist attractions, and are commonly used in place marketing and destination image-making strategies. Little attention has been paid, however, to their individual or collective viability and long-term sustainability. Supportive data are provided from a survey of 14 live-music festivals in Sweden in which responding festival managers confirmed the importance of attaining "institutional status," occupying a unique "niche" in the community, sustaining committed stakeholders, and practicing constant innovation. Theoretical conclusions are drawn on the institutionalization process for festivals, including a set of propositions that can be used both as indicators of institutional status, and as hypotheses for future research.
Key words: Sustainability; Festivals; Event organizations; Stakeholders; Institutions
Address correspondence to Donald Getz, Ph.D., Professor, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. Tel: 403-220-7158; Fax: 403-282-0095; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK): The Future of Event Industry Research
Linda M. Robson
Recreation & Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
Quantitative methods have dominated tourism research for many years, so it should come as no surprise that they are prominent in event industry research. Surveys, in particular, are used frequently in both academic and industry research. They garner a great deal of information, but is this the only option? The International Event Management Body Of Knowledge (EMBOK) Committee believes they have developed a model that is aimed specifically at researching issues within the event industry. It includes paradigms, definitions, and domains that can be mixed and matched to create thousands of potential research topics. This article looks at the status of the EMBOK Model and how well it accomplishes what it says it can do.
Key words: EMBOK; Event industry; Research
Address correspondence to Linda M. Robson, Recreation & Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. Tel: 519-831-1925; Fax: 519-826-5745; E-mail: email@example.com
Destination Selection Criteria: Key Success Factors Evolve and Dominate
Paul D. Rompf, Deborah Breiter, and Kimberly Severt
Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
Billions of dollars are spent annually on events that span a variety of genres. Furthermore, different types of events demonstrate their own unique goals and objectives. Physical and operational requirements may change by organizational size, budgetary constraints, and internal business policies. The importance of event type in the choice of a host destination is of considerable interest. Previous studies pertaining to destination selection criteria have focused on specific destination characteristics without taking into consideration the various event types. The current study investigated similarities and differences in destination selection criteria based on event type. The results provide evidence that event planners assign different levels of importance to destination selection criteria based on event type. The study compares results to previous studies that utilized the same methodology and data analysis approach. Over time, it appears there may be melding of importance for multiple destination criteria as a result of industry and global standards.
Key words: Event type; Destination; Selection criteria; Success factors; Conventions; Event planners
Address correspondence to Paul D. Rompf, Ph.D., Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Commercializing the Carnivalesque: The V Festival and Image/Risk Management
Southampton Solent University, Southampton, UK
The V Festival has been held since 1996, and was the first large-scale outdoor rock and pop music festival in Britain to be held at two sites simultaneously over one weekend. Developed as a mainstream alternative to the Glastonbury and Reading Festivals, it struggled to create a distinctive identity or gain critical acceptance, especially among the more radical or countercultural of festival-goers and press. Managed by a consortium of highly successful concert promoters, it actively embraces commercialism, sponsorship deals, and a forward-thinking ethos of quality and customer service. However, rather than escaping the countercultural and carnivalseque imagery and meanings historically associated with outdoor rock and pop music festivals it has, to varying degrees, commodified, modernized, or subverted them. In the process, it has gained considerable popularity among festival-goers and secured the plaudits of music industry professionals. The event is at the forefront of initiatives regarding festival policing and safety, and offers a role model for the many new commercial events that are established each year. This article considers how the concept of the countercultural carnivalesque has been used in relation to large-scale outdoor music festivals, before examining the V Festival through a cultural economic focus. It demonstrates how the beliefs and backgrounds of its organizers have influenced the management and image of the event, and how it has helped to transform the large-scale outdoor music festival market more generally.
Key words: Music; Festival; Carnivalesque; Management; Counterculture
Address correspondence to Dr. Chris Anderton,
Senior Lecturer in Popular Music Studies, Faculty of Media, Arts &
Society, Southampton Solent University, East Park Terrace, Southampton,
UK SO14 0RH. Tel: +44 (0)23 8031 9653; E-mail: email@example.com