|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 12, NUMBERS 3/4
Event Management, Vol. 12, pp. 119-131
1525-9951/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Validation of the Revised Volunteer Motivations Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE) at the Athens 2004 Olympic Games
Hyejin Bang,1 Konstantinos Alexandris,2 and Stephen D. Ross3
1Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
2Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
3University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
The purpose of the study was to validate the revised Volunteer Motivations Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE) and to identify subgroup differences in the motives for volunteering using a volunteer sample from the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. Two hundred and six volunteers (144 males and 62 females) for the Athens 2004 Olympic Games participated in the study and completed the 29-item scale. Results of the confi rmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support for the applicability of the volunteers' motivation questionnaire in the context of the Olympic Games, with the addition of the Love of Sport factor. The results of both validity (convergent and discriminant) and reliability (internal consistency) analyses were satisfactory. Results also indicated that gender and marital status had a signifi cant effect on specifi c motivational dimensions. These fi ndings suggest that the revised VMS-ISE can be a useful tool in measuring volunteer motives in international sporting events, as well as provide a better understanding of subgroup differences on volunteer motivation.
Key words: Volunteers; Motivation; International sporting svents; 2004 Athens Olympic Games
Address correspondence to Hyejin Bang, Florida International University, University Park, ZEB 360B, 11200 S.W. 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 USA. Tel: (305) 348-1411; Fax: (305) 348-1515; E-mail: bangh@fi u.edu
Visitors' Objectives for Trade Exhibition Attendance: A Case Study on the East Mediterranean International Tourism and Travel Exhibition (EMITT)
Nazmi Kozak and Cagil Hale Kayar
School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey
This article takes a brief look at visitors' objectives for attending the East Mediterranean International Tourism and Travel Exhibition held in Turkey, in February 2006. The empirical data was collected via questionnaires from a sample of 295 visitors. Findings of the study indicated that visitors' objectives had four dimensions, which were called "entertainment," "developments," "exhibition facilities," and "vacationing." Significant differences were observed across the four dimensions. Results also showed that visitors' most important objective when attending the exhibition was to learn about the recent developments in products and services. Significant differences were observed among the objectives based on the demographic profiles of visitors in the sample. This study highlights the importance of deeply understanding visitors' objectives in order to enhance trade exhibitions' effectiveness.
Key words: Trade exhibitions; Visitors' objectives; Tourism; East Mediterranean International Tourism and Travel Exhibition (EMITT)
Address correspondence to Cagil Hale Kayar, Research Assistant, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskisehir, Turkey. Tel: +90 222 3350580-2120; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Oaxaca's Indigenous Guelaguetza Festival: Not All That Glistens Is Gold
School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Ipswich, Australia
Guelaguetza is one of Mexico's premiere celebrations of indigenous dance and music. The festival occurs every July in Oaxaca City where it is a premier tourist attraction providing opportunities for socioeconomic growth and development. Yet the festival also creates negative impacts such as commodification and commercialization of the festival, which may lead to the bastardization of culture, including loss of indigenous authenticity and exploitation of local resources. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to critically analyze the positive and negative impacts of the 2007 Guelaguetza in order to determine the extent to which the festival focuses on becoming a tourist attraction at the expense of community celebration. A qualitative research design utilizing the case study approach was employed to analyze positive and negative impacts emerging from the real-world context of the 2007 Guelaguetza. The results of the study revealed that not all that glistens is gold at the festival. Behind the façade of this visually spectacular festival, the Guelaguetza is at real risk of becoming a colorful, attractive, yet meaningless, commercialized tourist venture if tourist and commercial needs are favored at the expense of the people and their traditions. Consequently, now is the time to revisit and redefi ne the purpose of the Guelaguetza to ensure it remains a sociocultural and economically viable annual festival for everyone to enjoy, long into the future.
Key words: Indigenous; Festivals; Impacts; Tourism
Address correspondence to Dr. Michelle Whitford at her current address: Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Brett Street, Tweed Heads NSW 2485, Australia. Tel: +61 7 55069307; Fax: +61 7 5506 9202; E-mail: email@example.com
Examining Visitor Mindfulness at a Cultural Event
Christine M. Van Winkle1 and Kenneth Backman2
1Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, Health,
Leisure and Human Performance Research Institute, University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
2Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
This study examined visitor mindfulness at a cultural festival. Mindfulness is considered a state of being that requires individuals to engage in active information processing, enabling them to be adaptive and responsive to information in their surroundings. Mindfulness is believed to result in more learning, high satisfaction, greater understanding, and greater feeling of control over behavior. Event managers must find ways to enhance visitor satisfaction as well as minimize negative impacts that result from events, and encouraging visitor mindfulness could contribute to these outcomes. This study took place over a 2-week period in July 2005 at the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Results presented demonstrate that the more interested visitors were in the festival the higher they scored on the mindfulness scale. Visitor level of mindfulness was positively related to their satisfaction with the event and their feelings of control over their own contribution to impacts. Implications for event managers are discussed.
Key words: Festival; Mindfulness; Satisfaction; Impacts
Address correspondence to Christine M. Van Winkle, Assistant Professor, Health, Leisure and Human Performance Research Institute, Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, 318 Max Bell Centre, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Canada. Tel (204) 474-8647; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An Impact Evaluation Framework: Local Government Community Festivals
Emma H. Wood
UK Centre of Event Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
This article brings together the author's previous research and consultancy along with a review of literature from several disciplines to develop a framework that summarizes the concepts, methods, and processes required to successfully evaluate the impacts of local government community festivals. Events and festivals are a relatively underresearched area but have experienced a growing amount of public sector expenditure. The framework developed and presented here is in response to the need to encourage greater evaluation of this activity and in doing so recognize the complexity of the process. The impacts of many such festivals are diverse (economic, social, environmental), far reaching (local, national, international), and long term. The evaluation of these impacts, therefore, requires an understanding of the concepts involved and the development of a range of tools and methods. The proposed framework is informed by the empirical research, theory, and practice in the areas of information systems, marketing communications, event studies, and public sector evaluation. Bringing together these distinct but related fields of study has enabled the development of a comprehensive and novel approach to event impact evaluation.
Key words: Evaluation; Festivals; Public sector; Event impacts; Event management
Address correspondence to Dr. Emma H. Wood, UK Centre of Event Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, Calverley Street, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK. Tel: +44 113 8123963; E-mail: email@example.com
Assessing Site Selection Criteria for Taiwan Lantern Festival by Analytic Hierarchy Process
Hsin-Yu Tsai1 and Ping-Tsan Ho2
1Department of Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Management,
National Kaohsiung Hospitality College, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2Department of Leisure, Recreation, and Tourism Management, TaTung Institute of Commerce and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan
Lantern Festival is the most important cultural event in Chinese ethnic society. With a tremendous economic and tourism value brought by the event activities, Taiwan cities are actively participating the bidding to host Taiwan Lantern Festival. Event site selection is arguably a complex issue because of a multitude of variables that are needed to be taken into consideration. Therefore, Delphi method and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) are used to develop an evaluation hierarchy for Taiwan Lantern Festival site selection. The proposed model not only provides the site selection criteria but also determines their relative importance of different criteria in influencing site selection decisions. Results show that tourism attraction and visitors' needs are the most important factors for selecting Taiwan Lantern Festival site and other important factors according to the rank of their weights are site environment, accessibility, and local support. The factors identified have implications for management practice, for site decision making by Taiwan Visitor Bureau and event organizers.
Key words: Analytical hierarchy process (AHP); Taiwan Lantern Festival; Site selection
Address correspondence to Hsin-Yu Tsai, Department of Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Management, National Kaohsiung Hospitality College, No. 1 Sung-Ho Rd., Shiao-Kang, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan R.O.C. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Preliminary Analysis of the Market for Small, Medium, and Large Horticultural Shows in England
Dorothy Fox and Jonathan Edwards
The School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
Understanding the consumer is important in estimating the market for an event. This study analyzed the sociodemographic and other characteristics of actual and potential visitors to three styles of English horticultural shows. The shows selected varied in terms of their status (national, regional, local), the number of visitors they attract, and the length of time they are open to the public. The analysis of the findings of a survey of residents in southern England suggests that while age is a key demographic variable, a more valuable means of segmenting the population is by their level of enthusiasm for gardening. Furthermore, it is proposed that demand for the largest shows, held nationally, can be established not only through these factors but also by the potential visitors' history of attending smaller horticultural shows. The implications for the marketing of these and similar events are discussed.
Key words: Horticultural shows; Gardening; Visitors; Segmentation
Address correspondence to Dorothy Fox, The School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Dorset House, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1202 961578; Fax: +44 (0)1202 515707; E-mail: email@example.com
Operationalization of the Resource Investments Construct of Recreational Sport Event
Isao Okayasu,1 Haruo Nogawa,1 and Duarte B. Morais2
1Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan
2The Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA
Research models should be grounded in sound theory. This applies to models attempting to elucidate why individuals participate in recreational sport event. Social phenomena have often been understood in terms of interpersonal behavior between individuals. Therefore, this article proposes that resource theory, which has been used widely to explain interpersonal relationships, can help us understand participation in recreational sport events. This study develops an instrument to assess the resources that participants and organizers deploy as they participate in recreational sport events. We detail a two-staged process of analysis. Initially, a pool of items is developed using six widely cited dimensions in resource theory: love, status, information, services, goods, and money. Second, each subscale is examined and modified so that it is appropriate for understanding participation in recreational sport events. Results show that these items in particular and resource theory in general are useful in understanding participant-organizer relationships within recreational sport events.
Key words: Resource investment; Resource theory; Recreational sport event
Address correspondence to Isao Okayasu, Juntendo University, 1-1
Hiragagakuendai, Inba-mura, Inba-gun, Chiba, 2701695, Japan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org