|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 13, NUMBER 2
Event Management, Vol. 13, pp. 69-81
1525-9951/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Motivations, Commitment, and Intentions to Continue Volunteering for Sporting Events
Hyejin Bang,1 Doyeon Won,2 and Yongjae Kim3
1Department of Educational Leadership & Policy Studies,
Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
3School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Volunteers are an integral human resource of most sporting events organizations in producing successful events. To sustain a volunteer workforce, building a sense of motivation, commitment, and intention to continue volunteering is one of the most important tasks of event organizations and managers. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationships between motivations and commitment as predictors of volunteers' intentions to continue to volunteer for future sporting events. For this purpose, 163 individuals (males = 70; females = 93) who volunteered at the 2005 Life Time Fitness Triathlon participated in a Web-based survey. The results revealed that Interpersonal Contacts, Love of Sport, and Personal Growth as volunteer motivation factors had a significant influence on the volunteers' commitment to the sporting event. The volunteers' Commitment and motivations, Community Involvement, and Extrinsic Rewards were found to be important variables in predicting intentions to continue to volunteer for future sporting events as well. This article provides a better understanding of volunteers' motivations and their relationships with commitment and intentions for sporting event managers in using the information with effective volunteer retention strategies.
Key words: Volunteers; Motivation; Commitment; Intention; Sporting events
Address correspondence to Hyejin Bang, Department of Educational Leadership & Policy Studies, Florida International University, University Park, ZEB 360B, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199. Tel: (305) 348-1411; Fax: (305) 348-1515; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Visitors' Motivation for Attending Theme Parks in Orlando, Florida
Kwang-Soo Park,1 Yvette Reisinger,1 and Cheol-Soo Park2
1National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School
of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia,
2School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Florida International University, Biscayne Bay Campus, North Miami, FL, USA
The objective of this study is to identify the major factors that motivate visitors to attend theme parks in Orlando, Florida, and segment visitors by their motivations. A survey of 260 visitors to theme parks in Orlando was conducted. Thirty-five motivational items were factor analyzed. The six factors that motivated visitors to attend theme parks in Orlando were "Fantasy & myth," "Learning," "Excitement," "Science & technology," "Rides," and "Small-town America." The cluster analysis identified four groups of visitors: "Fantasy seekers," "Thrilling ride seekers," "Light enjoyment seekers," and "Science seekers." The multivariate statistics showed significant differences among the four groups of visitors in their motivations for attending the Orlando theme parks. Implications of the study results are discussed.
Key words: Theme park; Motivation; Segmentation; Cluster analysis
Address correspondence to Yvette Reisinger, Associate Professor, National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, 17000 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. Tel: (215) 204-7139; Fax: (215) 204-8705; E-mail: email@example.com
Event Management and Group Communications: The Case of the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens
P. Papagiannopoulos,1* D. G. Xenikos,2,3 and P. Vouddas2
1Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games in Athens 2004,
2Hellenic Telecommunications Organization OTE SA, 15124 Maroussi, Athens, Greece
3School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, 15773 Zografou, Greece
The latest developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) revolutionize the way security, reliability, and efficiency of administration action is assured in large-scale events. This report draws from the experience of the 2004 Olympic Games and models the use of ICT for wireless group communications in the operations management. We examine (1) the structure and the information content of the communication routes for management, (2) the criteria for selection of a wireless telecommunications technology appropriate for the event, and (3) the reproducibility of important work parameters related to communications during typical operations or emergency conditions. We present data from the Athens Olympic Games, where the wireless communication systems successfully served the administration needs of the Olympics community, which included staff, organizations, and firms in the multinational events.
Key words: Olympic Games; Forecasting operations; Work measurement; General methodology; Information technologies
Address correspondence to D. G. Xenikos, Hellenic Telecommunications Organization OTE SA, 15124 Maroussi, Athens, Greece. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
*Current address: Cosmote SA, 15124 Maroussi, Athens, Greece.
An Application Illustration of the Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK) as a Framework for Analysis Using the Design of the 2006 Winter Olympics Opening Ceremonies
Julia Rutherford Silvers1 and Kathleen Beard Nelson2
1Speaking of Events; Adjunct Faculty, University of Nevada
Las Vegas; Adjunct Faculty, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Singapore
2William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada Las Vegas
Case studies involving actual situations and events have long been recognized as a valuable learning tool, providing instructors with methods for promoting mental inquiry (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 1998) and students with real-life examples to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate. This article proposes the use of the Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK) as an analytical tool to support case studies, as well as other teaching methods, because of its potential as a structure for deconstructing and analyzing an event. In the realm of events, there is arguably no better example to study than the Olympic Games due to its global recognition and hallmark status. This article uses the opening ceremonies of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games as the subject of an analysis using the Design Knowledge Domain of the EMBOK to illustrate the value of the EMBOK as a logical framework for analysis in a learning environment.
Key words: Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK); Olympics, Design elements
Address correspondence to Kathleen B. Nelson, Tourism & Convention Administration Department, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 456023, Las Vegas, NV 89154-6023. Tel: (702) 895-3931; Fax: (702) 895-4870; E-mail: email@example.com
The Orientation of Map Boards
UK Centre for Events Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK
Many events take place in venues that are unfamiliar to visitors attending the events. These customers need to be able to find their way around the site and the locality. They can do this using a variety of techniques, including navigation using fixed maps mounted on boards provided by the venue or the city. The key recommendation is that normal signs, where North is at the top of the map, and the board should be facing South. In event venues such as sports grounds and exhibition halls, it is less important for the top of the map to indicate North. It might be possible to turn the image to a "you-are here" board so that the orientation matches the grounds. Finding your way at events is important to customer satisfaction. Maps sometimes are the least addressed planning issue, but should be considered by all sizes and types of events.
Key words: Maps; Location; Direction; Representation orientation
Address correspondence to John Nightingale, UK Centre for Events
Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, Civic Quarter, Leeds, LS1 3HE,
UK. Tel: 00441138123459; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org