|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 13, NUMBER 3
Event Management, Vol. 13, pp. 139-152
1525-9951/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Direct and Indirect Influences of Sporting Event Organization's Reputation on Volunteer Commitment
Recreation and Sports Management, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
Volunteers have been recognized as one of the most crucial stakeholders in producing successful sporting events. Brand management research provides implications for a potential relationship between reputation of a sporting event organization and volunteer commitment to the event. The purpose of the study was to examine a proposed model integrating both the direct and indirect effects of a sporting event organization's reputation on the volunteer commitment in a sporting event. The data came from 205 individuals who volunteered at an annual sporting event held in a Midwestern state in north central US. The findings indicate that an organization's reputation has a direct effect on the level of volunteer commitment, as well as an indirect effect through volunteer satisfaction. The study illustrates the importance of sporting event organization's reputation in volunteer commitment and helps sporting event organizations or volunteer managers develop effective volunteer management strategies.
Key words: Volunteerism; Commitment; Organizational reputation; Sporting event
Address correspondence to Hyejin Bang, Ph.D., Recreation and Sports Management, Florida International University, University Park, ZEB 360B, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Tel: (305) 348-1411; Fax: (305) 348-1515; E-mail: email@example.com
Risk Management Strategies by Stakeholders in Canadian Major Sporting Events
Becca Leopkey and Milena M. Parent
School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
The purpose of this article is to identify and characterize the use of risk management strategies in major sporting events from the perspective of the organizing committee members and other stakeholders. Two Canadian sporting events-the ISU (International Skating Union) 2006 World Figure Skating Championships and the U-20 FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) World Cup Canada 2007-provided the platform for a comparative case study that was built using archival material and interviews. Key findings included a breakdown of risk management strategy types and an analysis of common strategies used across the various stakeholder groups. Seven risk strategy categories were identified by the various stakeholder groups: reduction, avoidance, reallocation, diffusion, prevention, legal, and relationship management. As a result, a strategic framework for dealing with risk management issues experienced at sporting events is provided.
Key words: Risk management strategies; Sporting event; Stakeholders
Address correspondence to Becca Leopkey, School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, 125 University St., Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada. Tel: (613)889-5288; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Successful Conference Venue: Perceptions of Conference Organizers and Hotel Managers
Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee
School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Within the conference industry there are differences in the needs and requirements of those who organize conferences and those who provide venues for them. Focusing on the situation in Korea, this article investigates the prior attributes required of a venue by Conference Organizers, the demand side of the industry, and by Hotel Managers, the supply side. This research is also aimed at identifying the common operational problems in hotels used as conference venues, and investigating if there is any correlation between these problems and the hotel attributes highly valued by the buyers in the conference industry. According to the results of this study, there are significant disparities between the attributes and common problems in the hotel conference industry from the perspectives of Conference Organizers and Hotel Managers.
Key words: Attributes; Conference venues; Conference organizers; Hotel managers; Korea
Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 6259; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: email@example.com
A Critical Comparative Study of Visitor Motivations for Attending Music Festivals: A Case Study of Glastonbury and V Festival
Gemma Gelder1 and Peter Robinson2
1Event and Venue Management and 2Tourism Management, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall Campus, Walsall, UK
A global industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed rapidly since the early 1900s. This phenomenal growth, coupled with increased consumer awareness and choice, requires sustained development and growth in the future. Music festivals are unique events that attract audiences for a variety of reasons; however, while music-based events are an extremely popular form of entertainment, research exploring the motivations of music festival audiences is sparse, especially from a UK perspective. Crompton and McKay contend that event managers should strive to better understand the motives of festival attendance in order to design better products and services for them and because motives are a precursor of satisfaction and a factor in decision making, this in turn can lead to greater attendance. This study critically compares the visitor motivations for attending two UK-based music festivals to challenge and ultimately support existing ideas developed from similar research overseas. The article establishes some of the first research into this area within the UK and challenges common assumptions from those in industry. A range of secondary research was considered and a review of existing literature on the subject was undertaken. Although the sample size was relatively small, the results showed that socializing with friends and family was a primary motive. Most importantly, the article supported the notion that multiple motivations come into play and it suggests that it is risky for festival managers to rely solely on the theme of the event itself. It is equally important to create a fun and festive atmosphere that offers ample opportunity to socialize and have new and nonmusical experiences. Several recommendations were made for existing and future managers including focusing on realigning marketing and service strategies. Recommendations were also made for future research in terms of adopting new methodological approaches including the use of multiple means of analysis. The article finally challenges the nature of the underpinning theory and questions the reason that so much of what is understood is still based in the field of sociology in tourism, with very little underpinning theory dedicated to the events industry, despite its emergence as an academic field over a decade ago.
Key words: Event; Motivation; Methodology; Festival; Glastonbury; V Festival; Atmosphere; Sociology; Music
Address correspondence to Gemma Gelder, Event & Venue Management, Visiting Lecturer, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall Campus, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS1 3BD, UK. Tel: 01902 323188/07926540184; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Reconsidering the Roots of Event Management: Leisure in Ancient Rome
Maximilliano E. Korstanje
School of Economics, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina
The present research note is aimed at describing scientifically how citizens practiced leisure in Ancient Rome ranging from 100 BC to 100 AD, almost 123 years of history that merit being uncovered. Readers who wish a clear description of how leisure conformed in the High Empire should refer to classical biographers such as Cornelius Tacitus and Caius Suetonius. In different manners, both have contributed to understand further regarding how Romans lived. Like in Greece, Rome mythology encouraged conflicts, confronting sons against their fathers due to the glory, fame, and power, which were values a child learned from the cradle. As a result, in the space of a few decades, Rome transformed into a military and economic Empire that subdued and indexed to known world for more than four centuries. Under such a circumstance, leisure worked as a vehicle towards hegemony and ideology, preventing social fragmentation as well as encouraging a rural migration to urban cities.
Key words: Roman Empire; Leisure; Pleasure; Ideology; Mythology
Address correspondence to Maximilliano E. Korstanje, School of Economics,
University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: email@example.com