|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 13, NUMBER 4
Event Management, Vol. 13, pp. 205-222
1525-9951/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Understanding Visitors' Involvement Profile and Information Search: The Case of Neimen Song Jiang Battle Array Festival
Aileen H. Chen1 and Ryan Y. Wu2
1Department of Leisure, Recreation, and Tourism, Southern
Taiwan University, Tainan County, Taiwan
2Graduate School of Travel Management, National Kaohsiung Hospitality College, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
The construct of involvement has become a promising variable to help understand and explain individuals' leisure behaviors. Researchers have examined involvement in various areas. However, few studies have focused on its relationship to information search in the context of the eastern world. This study identified the relationship of involvement dimensions to information search among Chinese participants. Data was collected in a sample of 207 participants at the Neimen Song Jiang Battle Array Festival held in Neimen Township, Kaohsiung. A survey research design was used and the participants completed a questionnaire, with items measuring individuals' involvement, information search, and personal attributes. A factor analysis was conducted to confirm the multidimensional structure of involvement, including attraction, sign value, and risk. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to identify those factors that influenced individuals' search behaviors. Results indicated that higher levels of involvement were associated with higher levels of information search. Specifically, self-expression and greater culture-related activity participation were effective determinants of information search. It was concluded that the involvement construct was also applicable to an Eastern festival and useful for predicting individuals' information search. However, future research at other Eastern festival sites is needed to generalize the findings reported here.
Key words: Leisure involvement; Information search; Festival; Cultural tourism
Address correspondence to Ryan Y. Wu, Graduate School of Travel Management, National Kaohsiung Hospitality College, 1 Sung-Ho Rd. Hsiao-Kang, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan R.O.C. Tel: 886-7-8060540; Fax: 886-7-8061041; E-mail: email@example.com
The Successful Conference Venue: Perceptions of Conference Organizers and Hotel Managers
Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee
School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Within the conference industry there are differences in the needs and requirements of those who organize conferences and those who provide venues for them. Focusing on the situation in Korea, this article investigates the prior attributes required of a venue by conference organizers (CO), the demand side of the industry, and by hotel managers (HM), the supply side. This research is also aimed at identifying the common operational problems in hotels used as conference venues, and investigating if there is any correlation between these problems and the hotel attributes highly valued by the buyers in the conference industry. According to the results of this study, there are significant disparities between the attributes and common problems in the hotel conference industry from the perspectives of CO and HM.
Key words: Attributes; Conference venues; Conference organizers; Hotel managers; Korea
Address correspondence to Dr. Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 6259; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sponsorship Recognition: Exploring Involvement-Exposure Interaction Effects and the Influence of Multiple Mediums
Luke R. Potwarka1 Ron E. Mccarville,1 Paula Johnson Tew,2 and Andrew T. Kaczynski3
1Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University
of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
2School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Centre for Hospitality and Culinary Arts, George Brown College, Toronto, Canada
3Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA
Sponsors support events in ways that promote their own corporate goals. One such goal is enhanced brand awareness as measured by brand name recognition (aided recall) tests. We explored conditions that might influence people's ability to remember (i.e., recognize) sponsors who advertised on signage displayed at a sporting event. Specifically, the purpose of our investigation was threefold: (i) to examine the interactive effects of involvement with an event and frequency of exposure to sponsors' signage on brand name recognition; (ii) to determine whether these interactive effects vary by sex; and (iii) to determine whether sponsors who utilize additional communication mediums over and above on-site signage generate more awareness in the form of brand name recognition than those who use only signage. Respondents with high involvement levels toward the sporting event (in this case, a university football game) and had attended two or more games (i.e., the high involvement/high exposure group) demonstrated a significantly greater ability to recognize event sponsors than did respondents reporting low involvement with the event and who had attended only one game (i.e., the low involvement/low exposure group). Among women, the high involvement/high exposure and high involvement/low exposure groups showed significantly greater recognition scores than did the low involvement/low exposure group. Although these significant differences were found among female respondents, none were evident among the male respondents. Finally, sponsors that utilized additional forms of promotion were not recognized by any more respondents than were those companies that utilized only one form of promotion (signage). Implications of these findings for festival and event managers and future research are discussed.
Key words: Sponsorship; Recognition; Signage; Involvement; Repetition
Address correspondence to Luke R. Potwarka, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. Tel: 519-888-4567, x37098; Fax: 519-886-2440; E-mail: email@example.com
The European Capital Culture Initiative and Cultural Legacy: An Analysis of the Cultural Sector in the Aftermath of Cork 2005
Department of Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland
The European Cities/Capitals of Culture initiative (subsequently referred to as ECOC) was originally set up in 1985 to celebrate European cultural diversity. Conceptualized by researchers as a major cultural event, a growing academic literature on the subject now argues that the ECOC has lost sight of its original cultural aims and is being increasingly used to further city-branding, image creation and tourism revenue generation agendas. This article reports the findings of a study that examined how the regular workings of a city's permanent cultural sector can be affected by this transient, large-scale cultural event. The ECOC studied Cork 2005. The study's findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constituted a boost for the sector in terms of strengthening capacity, building relationships, and enhancing well-being. It further points to a number of shortcomings in how the "process" or developmental potential of the event was fostered. A number of questions for future research are raised. Core among these include investigating how the needs of the cultural sector are recognized and managed amidst competing calls from other stakeholders, and how tensions/compromises attend the competing agendas that seek to capitalize on the ECOC.
Key words: European cities of culture; European capitals of culture; Cultural sector; Cultural legacies
Address correspondence to Dr. Bernadette Quinn, Department of Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street, Dublin 1, Ireland. E-mail: Bernadette.Quinn@dit.ie
What Is Event-Led Regeneration? Are We Confusing Terminology or Will London 2012 be the First Games to Truly Benefit the Local Existing Population?
Deborah (Debbie) Sadd
School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
When London won the bid to host the Games, the vision was underpinned by key themes, one of which was to leave a legacy of benefiting the community through regeneration. The regeneration of the Lower Lea Valley was promised to be for the direct benefit of everyone who lives and works there, involving significant social and economic advancement. However, Mace, Hall, and Gallent draw parallels through the previous urban regeneration projects in major cities and they argue that for regeneration to work it has to be for the benefit of the existing communities and not "new" communities who inhabit the area post the Games. Could this happen in East London and, despite Government plans, the developments lead to an extension of the Docklands renaissance, inhabited instead by mostly middle class workers? This article explores the difference between regeneration and gentrification in the context of London 2012 and other Olympic Games. Much of the published literature regarding London's legacy of urban regeneration has a positive slant, yet, through the analysis of documentation from previous Games and through in-depth interviews with key stakeholders, the research highlights a number of issues that London 2012 will need to address.
Key words: Regeneration; Event legacies; London 2012; Gentrification; Community as "stakeholder"
Address correspondence to Deborah (Debbie) Sadd, School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: 01202 965387; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Visitor Motivation to Attending International Festivals
L. Wakiuru Wamwara-Mbugua1 and T. Bettina Cornwell2
1Raj Soin College of Business and Economics, Department of
Marketing, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA
2Division of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
This research examines visitor motivation for attending international festivals. We investigate whether a) an individual's desire for unique consumer products, b) their culture being represented, c) prior festival participation, and d) their desire for thrill and excitement will influence their purchase intention and positive word-of-mouth recommendation. A survey of over 650 festival participants was administered and by utilizing logistic regression we identify some significant relationships. This research identified cultural representation and desire for unique items to be important influencers of purchase intention at international festivals. Therefore, festival organizers should develop activities and merchandize offerings that enable participants to self-fashion their identity through acquisition of unique consumer products.
Key words: Festival attendance; Desire for uniqueness; Cultural representation; Visitor motivation
Address correspondence to L. Wakiuru Wamwara-Mbugua, Assistant Professor
of Marketing, Raj Soin College of Business and Economics, Department of
Marketing, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, OH
45435, USA. Tel: 937-775-4579; Fax: 937-775-3952; E-mail: email@example.com