|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1, 2000
Event Management, Vol. 6, pp. 5-13, 2000
1525-9951/00 $15.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Festival and Event Management: An Experiential Approach to Curriculum Design
Dan McDonald1 And Terri McDonald2
1Division of Leisure Services and 2Price Laboratory School, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50613
This article presents a humanistic experiential education philosophy model that can be infused into university tourism programs around the world. The model includes process conditions and components and their interrelation with process outcomes. The approach provides opportunities for students to carefully examine their classroom activities and practical experiences through reflection and interaction. In the process condition component, learners must have self-motivation and a commitment to the program before they will be able to gain from the experience. The process component functions as characteristic problem-solving tasks set in a prescribed physical and social environment. In the example provided, the classroom experience is utilized to highlight the theory application process.
Key Words: Festival; Management; Experiential education
Address correspondence to Terri McDonald. Tel: (319) 273-3076; Fax: (319) 273-6457; E-mail: Terri.McDonald@uni.edu
Improving Forecasts for World's Fair Attendance: Incorporating Income Effects
Philip Feifan Xie1 and Stephen L. J. Smith2
1School of Planning and 2Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
An accurate attendance forecast is one of the most important elements of planning a world's fair. This article reports on a test of a possible improvement to the forecast method most commonly used by consultants, with data from four North American world's fairs. The results suggest that incorporating income effects improves forecast accuracy. The modification is assessed in terms of data access requirements, cost, ease of implementation, and accuracy. Some recommendations for further research are also identified.
Key Words: World's fairs; Attendance; Penetration rate model; Income elasticity; forecasting
Address correspondence to Stephen L. J. Smith. Tel: (519) 888-4045; Fax: (519) 746-6776; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Counting the Herd. Using Aerial Photography to Estimate Attendance at Open Events
Mike Raybould, Trevor Mules, Elizabeth Fredline, and Renata Tomljenovic
School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia
Open festivals and celebrations play an increasingly important role in the cultural and economic fabric of small towns in Australia. Frequently organizers are called upon to quantify the economic benefits to the host region in order to secure continued financial and political support. Studies of economic impact require visitor expenditure data, usually obtained through visitor surveys, and reliable event attendance figures. However, in open events where ticket counts or equivalent measures are not available researchers are forced to find other ways of estimating attendance. Techniques used in other disciplines can be of value in these circumstances. This article reviews some of the techniques used by ecologists in population estimates and considers their application to the problem of estimating attendance at open events. The use of aerial photography is illustrated using a recent study of an open event in Queensland. The case study shows that this technique can provide an acceptable and cost-effective alternative for event researchers in a predominantly open-air daytime event.
Key Words: Estimating attendance; Open events; Aerial photography
Address correspondence to Mike Raybould. Tel: 61 7 5594 8822; Fax: 61 7 5594 8507; E-mail: email@example.com
A Profile of Michigan's Festival and Special Event Tourism Market
Semok Yoon,1 Daniel M. Spencer,1 Donald F. Holecek,1 and Dae-Kwan Kim2
1Travel, Tourism, and Recreation Resource
Center, 172 Natural Resources Building, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI 48824-1222
2Korea Tourism Research Institute, Seoul, Korea
The results of this study provide some insights into the characteristics and behavior of festival/event tourists to help tourism marketers and festival/event managers plan and market festivals and events to tourists. Findings are based on data from a household telephone survey conducted in Michigan, surrounding states, and Ontario, Canada. Results reveal that over a quarter of those who took a pleasure trip in Michigan within the past 12 months attended a festival or event on their trip. Tourists who attended festivals or events on their most recent pleasure trip in Michigan and those who did not were compared in terms of media habits, planning horizons, travel behavior, and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The findings reveal that festival/event tourists, compared to other tourists, are more likely to begin their trips during the summer months and to participate in a wide array of recreation activities on these trips. They also, on average, begin to plan their trips and choose their destinations earlier than other tourists, take longer trips, and spend more money on their trips than their counterparts.
Key Words: Festival marketing; Event marketing; Festival planning; Event planning; Festival tourism; Event tourism; Market segmentation
Address correspondence to Semok Yoon. Tel: (517) 353-0793; Fax: (517) 432-2296; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
After the Event: Perspectives on Organizational Partnerships in the Management of a Themed Festival Year
Centre for Tourism, School of Leisure and Food Management, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
The management of festivals and events often involves some form of partnership between different organizations and interest groups. This article presents an analysis of the interorganizational partnership that conceived, organized, and managed the Year of Visual Arts, which was held in the north of England during 1996. The article also considers the legacies of the Year from the perspectives of the partner organizations and discusses the experiences of the Year that may be transferable to other areas that host similar events. The article analyzes empirical findings in relation to:
Key Words: Partnerships; Interagency collaboration; Themed festival events
Address correspondence to Philip Long. Tel:
+44 (0)114 225 3325; Fax: +44 (0)114 225 3343; E-mail: P.E.Long@shu.ac.uk