ognizant Communication Corporation

EVENT MANAGEMENT
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 3, 2000

Event Management, Vol. 6, pp. 135-153, 2000
1525-9951/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The International Olympic Committee and Site Decisions: The Case of the 2002 Winter Olympics

Christer Persson

ETOUR, European Tourism Research Institute, SE-831 25 Östersund, Sweden

By means of an empirical survey, this article analyzes the decision-making process of the members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in order to establish how they evaluated the bids to host the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Three bid-winning models were identified. These consisted of offers from a total of seven bid-winning subjects: the Olympic village for accommodating the athletes, transportation facilities for all the visitors to the Games, the sports arenas, the finances of the Games, telecommunications, information technology, and the media center. Offers, which had little or nothing to do with the Olympic Winter Games, were on average graded "important" by the majority of the IOC members. However, offers that referred to the performance of the Games were considered, on average, more important than other offers. The individual IOC members did not share the interest of the IOC in bids offering cultural events, environmental care (opening, closing, and prize) ceremonies, a youth camp for young athletes, and accommodation for all the athletes in a single Olympic village. No bid messenger was considered "very influential" by a majority of the IOC members in their bid choices. "The visits of the IOC members to the bid cities" was the only channel for communicating bid offers that was perceived as "very influential" by a majority of the IOC members. Every fourth IOC member stated that it was not important to their bid selection that the bidders followed IOC's bidding rules. Fifteen bid offers (17%) were evaluated differently by the IOC members due to their cultural and demographic differences.

Key words: Bid; Decision process; Mega-event; Organizational buying behavior; Olympic Games

Address correspondence to Christer Persson. E-mail: inventor@mail.op.se




Event Management, Vol. 6, pp. 155-165, 2000
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Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Turning 16 Days Into 16 Years Through Olympic Legacies

J. R. Brent Ritchie

World Tourism Education & Research Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4

The hosting of mega-events such as the Olympic Games provides a short period of intense excitement for residents and enhances the long-term awareness of the host destination in tourism markets. However, unless the event is carefully and strategically planned with destination and community development in mind, it can be difficult to justify the large investments required. The article focuses on two examples (the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics, and the Salt Lake City 2002 Games) in an attempt to demonstrate how "legacy planning" can help ensure that the hosting of a short-term mega-event such as the Olympics can contribute to the development and consolidation of facilities and programs that will benefit destination residents for many years.

Key words: Mega-events; Olympic Games; Legacy planning; Destination and community planning

Address correspondence to J. R. Brent Ritchie. Phone: (403) 220-6994; Fax: (403) 284-7915; E-mail: britchie@mgmt.ucalgary.ca




Event Management, Vol. 6, pp. 167-174, 2000
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Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Relationship Between Place Attachment and Crowding in an Event Setting

Thomas D. Wickham1 and Deborah L. Kerstetter2

1Assistant Professor of Recreation, California University of Pennsylvania, California, PA 15419
2Associate Professor of Leisure Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

Researchers have used the concept of place attachment to better understand people's attachment to recreational settings as well as geographic areas. They also have examined the phenomenon of "crowding" within these same settings and have adopted the notion that crowding is a negative evaluation of population density and has a negative impact on visitors' experiences. What we do not know is whether there is a relationship between individuals' attachment to a place and their perceptions of crowding, especially within the context of a community-focused festival. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between place attachment and visitors' perceptions of crowding at a First Night® event. Data were analyzed using a series of correlations between a place attachment index and six crowding questions. Results indicated that place attachment is positively related to an individual's perception of crowding. As individuals' attachment to their community increases so too do their positive feelings about crowds. These results challenge traditional notions about crowding and provide insight to festival managers interested in enhancing their relationship with the host community.

Key words: Place attachment; Crowding; Visitor perceptions

Address correspondence to Thomas D. Wickham. E-mail: wickham@cup.edu




Event Management, Vol. 6, pp. 175-189, 2000
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Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Framework for Assessing "Tangible" and "Intangible" Impacts of Events and Conventions*

Larry Dwyer,1 Robert Mellor,1 Nina Mistilis,1 And Trevor Mules2

1Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW, Australia 2560
2Canberra University

Governments are often asked to provide financial support for special events and conventions to be held within particular destinations. The major problem is: what degree of support, if any, is warranted? The answer to this question varies according to the perceived public benefits and costs associated with the event. Clearly, there is needed some framework of analysis that can be used to help determine which events should be supported, and to what extent, and which should not be supported with public funds. In late 1998 Tourism New South Wales commissioned the development of a framework for assessing the economic impacts of events and conventions (exhibitions, conferences) by type and by location. This framework was expected to serve as a device for discerning trends in economic impacts of events and conventions, and also serve as a guide to projecting the likely economic impacts of future events and conventions by type and by location. The focus of this article is on the usefulness of the framework for assessing the impacts of events and conventions. First, the aims of the project undertaken for Tourism New South Wales are specified, and the method outlined. Second, the framework that was developed for assessing the economic and other impacts of events and conventions is presented and discussed.

Key words: Tangible impacts; Intangible impacts; Event assessment; Assessment framework

Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer. E-mail: l.dwyer@uws.edu.au

*This article is based on the results of a study undertaken for Tourism New South Wales in 1998/1999 (Dwyer, Melor, Mistilis, & Mules, 1999a, 1999b).




Event Management, Vol. 6, pp. 191-204, 2000
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Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Forecasting the Economic Impacts of Events and Conventions*

Larry Dwyer,1 Robert Mellor,1 Nina Mistilis,1 And Trevor Mules2

1Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW, Australia 2560
2Canberra University

Governments often receive requests to provide funding to support special events and conventions because of their alleged positive impacts, economic and otherwise, on a destination. In these circumstances, a framework of assessment is required to determine the extent of support, if any, that is to be given to alternative events. In a companion article (this issue), a framework was developed for assessing "tangible" and "intangible" impacts of events and conventions. This article shows how the framework can be used as a forecasting tool to inform government as to the ``deservedness'' of different events and conventions to receive public funding.

Key words: Tangible impacts; Intangible impacts; Forecasting model

Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer. E-mail: l.dwyer@uws.edu.au

*This article is based on the results of a study undertaken for Tourism New South Wales in 1998/1999 (Dwyer, Melor, Mistilis, & Mules, 1999a, 1999b).