ognizant Communication Corporation

EVENT MANAGEMENT
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1

Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 1-9
1525-9951/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sponsorship Awareness and Recognition at Canberra's Floriade Festival

Duane Coughlan and Trevor Mules

Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia

The literature on sponsorship at special events has tended to address the needs of the organizers of the events. This article addresses the needs of the sponsors within a marketing framework. With event sponsorship tending to take on more of a commercial focus and less of an altruistic focus, sponsors have greater need to know how their sponsorship of an event enhances their marketing activity. This article presents findings of research at Canberra's annual Floriade Festival. The research measured unprompted awareness and prompted recognition levels. Awareness appeared to be moderately high, and there was little recognition confusion. Visitors to Canberra appeared to score higher than local residents on both aspects.

Key words: Sponsorship; Awareness; Recognition; Advertising

Address correspondence to Professor Trevor Mules, Tourism Program, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Tel: 61 2 6201 5016; Fax: 61 2 6201 2550; E-mail: tjm@comedu.canberra.edu.au




Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 11-24
1525-9951/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Development of a Scale to Measure Resident Attitudes Toward the Social Impacts of Community Festivals, Part I: Item Generation and Purification of the Measure

Thomas A. Delamere,1 Leonard M. Wankel,2 and Thomas D. Hinch2

1Department of Recreation and Tourism Management, Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, British Columbia
2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta

The primary purpose of this research is the development of a scale that measures resident attitudes toward the social impacts of community festivals. This article will detail the first of two stages in the scale development process, namely the item generation and purification of the initial scale items. To begin, a listing of the social benefits and costs of community festivals was generated. Second, the listing of items was tested on convenience samples of students from Malaspina University-College and the University of Alberta. These items were then purified using Cronbach's alpha and item-to-total correlation to assess the reliability of the items, and factor analyzed to assess the dimensionality of the scale and to further purify the measure. Two main factors were determined: social benefits and social costs. A companion article details the second stage in this research process: the verification and refinement of the scale through testing on the Cloverdale community of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and the Edmonton Folk Music Festival.

Key words: Festival; Social impacts; Scale development

Address correspondence to Thomas A. Delamere, Department of Recreation and Tourism Management, Malaspina University-College, 900 Fifth Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada V9R 5S5. Tel: (250) 753-3245; Fax: (250) 755-8725; E-mail: delameret@mala.bc.ca




Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 25-38
1525-9951/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Development of a Scale to Measure Resident Attitudes Toward the Social Impacts of Community Festivals, Part II: Verification of the Scale

Thomas A. Delamere

Department of Recreation and Tourism Management, Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, British Columbia

The purpose of this research was to develop a scale that measures resident attitudes toward the social impacts of community-based festivals. Following the item generation and pretesting stages of the study (Part I), the scale was verified through testing on the Cloverdale community of Edmonton, Alberta, and the Edmonton Folk Music Festival. This study used these procedures and the Expectancy-Value model of attitude formation to build upon the existing tourism impact research, applying directly to the emerging area of festival-related social impacts, and the standardized measurement and articulation of those impacts. A two-factor solution, loading on "benefits" and "costs," was identified during both the pretesting/purification phase, and the verification phase of scale development. This is the second paper in a two-part series. The first paper described the item generation process and purification of the initial scale items.

Key words: Festival; Social impacts; Scale development

Address correspondence to Thomas A. Delamere, Department of Recreation and Tourism Management, Malaspina University-College, 900 Fifth Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada V9R 5S5. Tel: (250) 753-3245; Fax: (250) 755-8725; E-mail: delameret@mala.bc.ca




Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 39-49
1525-9951/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Evolution of Festivals and Other Events in Rural Southern New Zealand

J. E. S. Higham1 and B. Ritchie2

1Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
2Tourism Management, University of Canberra, Canada

A growing number of festivals and other special events take place in rural and peripheral communities. Event organizers should strategically plan and manage these rural events not only for long-term viability, but also to maximize potential benefits and minimize costs. The transition of rural economies in New Zealand since the political and economic restructuring of the mid-1980s has led to an increased interest in tourism and the use of events for economic and social development. This article examines the establishment and development of events in rural southern New Zealand. A total of 32 rural event organizers were surveyed with a mail out/mail back self-completion survey. The results indicate that the geography, history, and cultural heritage of rural southern New Zealand favor the development of events that may be effectively integrated with the local tourism product. The majority of events have been modified, indicating a willingness to maximize event tourism benefits. However, despite a recent movement toward more formal organization and planning, few event producers conduct research or use strategic plans. The main hindrance is a lack of resources and expertise, but Territorial Local Authorities and Regional Tourism Organizations can play a direct role in the strategic development of rural events.

Key words: Rural tourism; Events; Economic development; New Zealand

Address correspondence to James Higham, Senior Lecturer, Department of Tourism, School of Business, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 64-3-479-8500; Fax: 64-3-4799034; E-mail: jhigham@business.otago.ac.nz



Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 51-65
1525-9951/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Organizing Events: Managing Conflict and Consensus in a Political Market Square

Maria Larson1,2 And Ewa Wikström2

1European Tourism Research Institute (ETOUR) and 2School of Economics and Commercial Law at Göteborg University

Events are organized by several different actors with individual interests. In order to perform the project task at hand, actors form relationships aimed at cooperation. Relationships involve political processes, which can be understood from a consensus and a conflict perspective. From the consensus perspective, mutual commitment, trust, and conversation are important to build fruitful relationships. From the conflict perspective, tensions, conflicts, and power games are considered unavoidable aspects of social interaction, which create change and renewal. This article aims at describing and understanding political processes in event project networks. The findings suggest that processes within project networks are predominantly based on either a consensus or a conflict perspective. However, consensus and conflict are not to be regarded as poles apart. Instead, they are intertwined and coexist in relational interaction. Actors use different strategies to manage political processes, aiming at building either legitimacy or mutual commitment.

Key words: Project network; Conflict; Consensus; Political market square; Legitimacy building; Mutual commitment building

Address correspondence to Maria Larson, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. Tel: +46 31 773 1894; Fax: +46 31 773 4410; E-mail: Maria.Larson@mgmt.gu.se




Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 67-77
1525-9951/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Analyzing Alberta Festival Consumers

David Bruce Grant1 and Stanley J. Paliwoda2

1Department of Business Studies, The University of Edinburgh
2Birmingham Business School, The University of Birmingham

This research note provides an analysis of Alberta arts festival survey data. The analysis was undertaken to assist festival organizers and marketers to better understand their consumers and so improve their marketing. Data pertaining to the province of Alberta were drawn from a national survey database. The collection and coding of the original data were not complete, and deep statistical analysis was not possible. Only descriptive analyses were generated. However, some trends and findings were consistent with an earlier analysis of all Alberta arts consumers and appeared to be supported by some of the extant literature.

Key words: Consumer profiles; Festival consumers; Marketing strategies; Canada

Address correspondence to David Grant, Lecturer, Department of Business Studies, The University of Edinburgh, William Robertson Building, 50 George Square, Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9JY, UK. Fax: (0131) 668 3053; E-mail: David.Grant@ed.ac.uk