ognizant Communication Corporation

EVENT MANAGEMENT
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2

Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 79-92
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
 

Evaluating the Impact of the 2000 America's Cup on Auckland, New Zealand

M. Barker,1* S. J. Page,2 and D. Meyer3

1Centre for Tourism Research, Massey University-Albany, Auckland, New Zealand
2Department of Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, FK9 4LA
3Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University-Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

Tourism events are often recognized for their ability to generate significant economic benefits for the host destination. In an environment where research is predominantly concerned with measuring economic impacts, this study sought to examine the wider impacts and implications of hosting a special event, the America's Cup in 2000. This article evaluates the major impacts of hosting the America's Cup in the city of Auckland and finds a notable lack of available data that document the impacts of tourism events. It considers whether the costs invested in hosting an event are recovered as a direct result of staging the event. The study concludes that the economic agendas on which event management is often based need to be viewed in the context of the total impacts generated. Furthermore, while this type of overview is important for contextual purposes and identifying available data, more research attention needs to be directed towards understanding the social, physical, environmental, and tourism impacts associated with hosting events in their local context. The nature and extent of impacts can vary significantly between events and destinations and therefore the repeat hosting of the America's Cup in Auckland in 2003 provides a unique opportunity for longitudinal studies to increase the industry's understanding of the significance of event tourism.

Key words: America's Cup; Impacts; Tourism events

Address correspondence to Stephen Page, Department of Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, FK9 4LA. E-mail: s.j.page@stir.ac.uk

*M. Barker was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Centre for Tourism Research.




Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 93-102
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Economic Scale of Community-Run Festivals: A Case Study

Muhamet Mehmetoglu

Finnmark University College, Department of Tourism, Norway
University of Luton, Department of Tourism and Leisure, UK

This article reports a case study of the economic scale of a community-run festival in Norway. Gross income (nonresident visitor and participant spending) attributable to the festival was estimated to be NOK 361.801 (Norwegian krone). Deducting the leakage associated with the event, measured to be NOK 253.882, from the gross income provides us with a figure of NOK 107.919, which is the net income that could be attributed to the festival. The findings of this study support the fact that many small-scale events have little direct economic impact on their community or region, mainly because they cater mostly to residents. However, the conclusions obtained from this study cannot be deemed representative of all community-run festivals as each festival differs in nature.

Key words: Special events; Festivals; Economic impact; Leakage

Address correspondence to Muhamet Mehmetoglu, Finnmark University College, Department of Tourism, Follumsvei 31, N-9509 Alta, Norway. Tel: +47 784 50 269; Fax: +47 784 34 438; E-mail: memet@hifm.no




Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 103-114
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Residents' Reactions to the Staging of Major Motorsport Events Within Their Communities: A Cluster Analysis

Elizabeth Fredline and Bill Faulkner

School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia

An understanding of host community reactions to the impacts of special events is important for public and private sector organizations involved in the support and promotion of these events. This is because, in the case of recurring events in particular, a lack of support by a majority of the resident population, or even significant minority groups, could threaten their existence in the future. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, by understanding the factors that are related to residents' reactions to an event, efforts could be made to minimize negative impacts, thus ensuring that their quality of life is not undermined and, again, minimizing threats to the event's continuation. This article presents the results of a cluster analysis of the perceptions held by residents in two cities of the impacts of a motor race staged within their community. Similar patterns were found in both cities with a number of different reactions observed, ranging from very negative to very positive. The clusters were then examined on a number of independent variables to establish profiles of the types of residents most likely to hold certain perceptions of the events.

Key words: Residents' reactions; Event impacts; Cluster analysis

Address correspondence to Elizabeth Fredline, Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia. Tel: +61 7 5594 8887; Fax: +61 7 5594 8507; E-mail: e.fredline@mailbox.gu.edu.au



Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 115-125
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Variations in Residents' Reactions to Major Motorsport Events: Why Residents Perceive the Impacts of Events Differently

Elizabeth Fredline and Bill Faulkner

School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia

With the increasing reliance on the staging of events as an ingredient of tourist destination development and promotion, their impacts on subgroups within the host community have become an issue for consideration by event management. In an effort to understand the varying ways in which local residents react to tourism and event impacts, and the reasons for their reactions, social representation theory has been advanced as a framework for analysis. This article follows on from a previous one reporting the results of a cluster analysis aimed at identifying a range of social representations held by residents of two Australian cities in regard to similar motorsport events. Logistic regression analysis is used to evaluate the success and relative importance of a number of independent variables in predicting the social representations held by local residents.

Key words: Event impacts; Residents' perceptions; Community reactions; Destination management

Address correspondence to Elizabeth Fredline, Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia. Tel: +61 7 5594 8887; Fax: +61 7 5594 8507; E-mail: e.fredline@mailbox.gu.edu.au
 




Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 127-134
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

RESEARCH NOTE

Festival Visitor Motivation From the Organizers' Points of View

Kyungmi Kim,1 Muzaffer Uysal,1 and Joseph S. Chen2

1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 351 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429
2Hotel and Restaurant Management, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI 48197

Festivals and special events serve as important attractors for tourists and provide unique experiences for attendees. These events may also provide both tangible and intangible benefits for communities. Most of the studies dealing with festivals and events have focused on either understanding attendees' behavior or delineating the economic impacts of visitation upon communities in which such events are held. Sporadic attention has also been paid to such issues as sponsorship, volunteerism, the role of community involvement in staging events, and perceptions of events and festivals. Little, if any, research has been done to examine how different festival organizers perceive the motivation for attending festivals and events. Thus, the purpose of this study is to solicit the organizers' perception of the attendees' motivations and to compare these results with those of attendees from literature. The study concludes with management and marketing implications for festival and event organizers.

Key words: Event organizers; Perceptions; Visitor motivation

Address correspondence to Muzaffer Uysal, Ph.D., Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 351 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429. Tel: (540) 231-9181; Fax: (540) 231-8313; E-mail: samil@vt.edu