ognizant Communication Corporation



Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 209-219
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Why Festivals Fail

Donald Getz

Tourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Management, University of Calgary, Canada

Exploratory research was conducted with festival management professionals to determine the incidence and causes of festival failure. Although the small sample does not permit generalization, results clearly reveal that festival crises and failures are common, and a number of likely sources of failure are identified: the weather; lack of corporate sponsorship; overreliance on one source of money; inadequate marketing or promotion; and lack of advance or strategic planning. A number of theoretical frameworks are examined that can help explain festival failure and shape further research, including resource dependency, Porter's framework for assessing competitive advantages, population ecology, and the product life cycle.

Key words: Festival failure; Management; Resource dependency; Life cycle; Competition; Population ecology; Organizational culture

Address correspondence to Donald Getz, Ph.D., Professor, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Management, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. Tel: 403-220-7158; Fax: 403-284-7915; E-mail: getz@acs.ucalgary.ca

Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 221-230
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourist Expenditures at Heritage Festivals

Deepak Chhabra,1 Erin Sills,2 and Philip Rea3

1Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, California State University, Sacramento, CA 95819
2Department of Forestry and 3Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695

Short-term events such as festivals are important components of heritage tourism. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of expenditures at heritage festivals, considering the visitors' socioeconomic characteristics, personal heritage, and experience of the festival. The event studied is a popular Scottish festival held annually in North Carolina. By relating expenditures to age, income, and other characteristics, we identify potential target groups for marketing the event. Visitors who are older and have higher incomes tend to spend more on accommodations and in the festival region in general. Visitors who plan their trip further in advance and travel further to get to the festival also tend to spend more. Unexpectedly, visitors with personal connections to Scotland and Scottish heritage do not have higher expenditures. Enjoyment of the events offered at the festival is positively correlated with spending. Thus, tourist expenditures in heritage tourism are not necessarily related to personal heritage but depend more on enjoyment of the event and socioeconomic characteristics such as age and income.

Key words: Heritage tourism; Tourism; Heritage tourists; Market segments; Expenditures; Spending behavior

Address correspondence to Dr. Deepak Chhabra, Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, California State University, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819-6110. Tel: (917) 278-6429; Fax: (916) 278-5053; E-mail: Deepak.chhabre@csus.edu

Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 231-243
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Pulsating Major Sport Event Organizations: A Framework for Inducting Managerial Personnel

Clare Hanlon1 and Graham Cuskelly2

1Victoria University, Australia
2Griffith University, Australia

In 1990 Toffler coined the term "pulsating organization" to reflect organizations that expand and contract. This term has relevance for major sport event organizations. They generally operate with a small core of personnel for much of the year, expand substantially in the lead up to an event, then afterwards personnel numbers shrink in size. This effect poses substantial challenges in delivering a quality induction process for many major sport event organizations. The first part of this study identifies how these "pulsating organizations," in light of their special characteristics, have adapted an induction process from "generic" organizations. The second part incorporates semistructured interviews with managers at the Australian Open Tennis Championships and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix to ascertain their induction process before a major sport event. The final part recommends a model to improve the management of induction at these two organizations. On a broader scale, managers of other pulsating major sport event organizations could incorporate this model, when developing, implementing, and evaluating their induction process.

Key words: Sport event organizations; Managerial induction; Pulsating organizations; Induction process

Address correspondence to Clare Hanlon, Sport Business Program, Victoria University, PO Box 14428 MCMC, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9688 4361; Fax: 61 3 9688 4891; E-mail: clare.hanlon@vu.edu.au

Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 245-257
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) "Event Leadership" Training Course--An Effectiveness Evaluation

Maria Tzelepi1 and Shayne P. Quick2

1EVGA, Athens, Greece
2Faculty of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Responding to demands for increased productivity and employee efficiency, more and more corporations have created departments for the training of their staff. The Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) had its own Workforce Training Team (WTT), which consisted of SOCOG and TAFE NSW. WTT provided consultants for the Olympic and Paralympic Games and oversaw the training of volunteers and permanent staff. One of the training courses delivered to staff employed by SOCOG was the Event Leadership course. This specific course, which was compulsory for all staff in supervisory or managerial positions, aimed at improving leadership skills. As with most training courses, one way to examine whether a course has achieved its aims and objectives is through an evaluation of the attendees' perception of its effectiveness. A review of the theory of the five main effectiveness models led to the belief that the strategic constituencies' approach was the most suitable in this instance. This model takes into consideration the existence of many stakeholders and evaluates results based on the perspective of one. This research determined the participants' expectations from the course, evaluated the perceived quality and utility of the knowledge provided, gauged the course's alleged contribution to the improvement of the participants' skills, and, finally, made concluding comments regarding the design and delivery of the course.

Key words: Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG); Training courses; Leadership skills; Effectiveness evaluation

Address correspondence to Shayne P. Quick, Ph.D., Director, Project Development, Faculty of Business, UTS, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW, Australia 2007. Tel: +61 (0)2 9514 3575; Fax: +61 (0)2 9514 3877; E-mail: Shayne.Quick@uts.edu.au

Event Management, Vol. 7, pp. 259-270
1525-9951/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Masters' Games--The Nature Of Competitors' Involvement and Requirements

Chris Ryan and Tim Lockyer

Department of Tourism Management, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand

This article reports results derived from a study of competitors at the South Pacific Masters Games in 2000, held in Hamilton, New Zealand. It notes that there is little in the academic literature about such Games, in spite of their popularity as measured by the numbers of competitors. Relevant literature does exist, however, with reference to economic impacts of events and conceptualizations of involvement and participation. One omission appears to be that of what competitors require of Games with reference to specific sports and events organization. This study found that the prime motives of competitors related to self-challenge and socialization, and the importance of the latter acted as a discriminator between two clusters of participants. For all competitors, there existed a requirement that events be well marshaled, refereed, and that time-keeping was of a professional standard. The article also examines gender differences and whether levels of past involvement in Masters' Games were an influence in shaping both perceptions and satisfactions.

Key words: Masters' Games; Involvement; Participation; Sports events; New Zealand

Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, Department of Tourism Management, The University of Waikato, Gate 7 Hillcrest Road, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. E-mail: caryan@waikato.ac.nz