|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1
Event Management, Vol. 8, pp. 3-14
1525-9951/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Building Events Into Destination Branding: Insights From Experts
Leo Jago,1 Laurence Chalip,2 Graham Brown,3 Trevor Mules,4 and Shameem Ali1
2University of Texas at Austin
3University of South Australia
4University of Canberra
Events have become an increasingly significant component of destination branding. Although events are thought to be important contributors to their host destination's brand, the most effective means by which to leverage them in order to build that brand are poorly understood. To explore the potential uses for events in destination branding, workshops with leading event and destination marketers were conducted by the CRC for Sustainable Tourism throughout Australia. The workshops were designed to clarify what destination and event marketers do when using events in destination branding. The workshops then identified what the industry would like to know to make better use of events in this regard. Workshop participants identified community support and a good strategic and cultural fit with the destination as necessary bases for building events into destination branding. Other themes that emerged were: the need for an event to be differentiated from others, the longevity/tradition of the event at the destination, cooperative planning between key players, and media support of the event. Participants also recognized the need to consider the effects of events with reference to the overall portfolio of events at a destination. It was noted that event marketers and destination marketers have not yet learned how to synergize their efforts, and that there is a consequent need for further research into the best means to use events to build a destination's brand.
Key words: Event planning; Event evaluation; Destination branding; Co-branding
Address correspondence to Professor Leo Jago, Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, MC Melbourne City, Victoria, Australia 8001. Tel: 61 3 9688 5055; Fax: 61 3 9688 4995; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mega-Events and Urban Renewal: The Case of the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games
Jack Carlsen1 and Anne Taylor2
2Edith Cowan University
With the decline of traditional economic activities in postindustrial cities such as Manchester, mega-events linked with urban renewal programs are becoming increasingly important. The hosting of large international events is not only beneficial for the tourism industry but it is linked to all aspects of economic and social development. Manchester has actively sought a program of tourism and cultural events as a means of showcasing the city as well as accelerating the process of urban renewal. This article examines how the management structures, policies, and programs for the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games were linked with existing efforts to achieve long-term urban renewal.
Key words: Manchester Commonwealth Games; Urban renewal; Social programs
Address correspondence to Professor Jack Carlsen, Ph.D., Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102. Tel: +61 8 9266 1132; Fax: + 61 8 9266 2872; E-mail: CarlsenJ@cbs.curtin.edu.au
The Development of a Generic Scale to Measure the Social Impacts of Events
Liz Fredline,1 Leo Jago,2 and Margaret Deery2
Tourism destination managers are increasingly looking at events as an important mechanism for enhancing tourism development in their regions. While it is clear that events have the potential to generate positive economic impacts, a balanced appraisal of the success of an event needs to consider the total cost/benefit package including social impacts. Unlike economic impacts, social impacts of events can be difficult to measure objectively as many of them cannot be quantified, and they often have a differential effect on different members of the community. For this reason, social impacts are frequently examined through investigation of residents' perceptions of the impacts. However, little research has undertaken a systematic evaluation of these social impacts, and the aim of this CRC for Sustainable Tourism study is to provide a framework within which to assess these impacts. This article documents the processes involved in developing a scale to be used in assessing the social impacts of three different events. The development process began with a review of literature to generate items, which were supplemented by items generated through focus group discussions. The overall aim of the study is to test and validate an instrument that can be used to compare the social impacts of a variety of events and ultimately to inform knowledge in the area of social impact assessment in tourism more generally. In so doing, the article provides, through the use of factor analysis, a reduced set of items for measuring the social impacts of events. It is anticipated that this method will provide a more parsimonious instrument for general use.
Key words: Social impacts; Residents' perceptions; Events; Assessment scale development; Generic scale
Address correspondence to Dr. Liz Fredline, Griffith University, Senior Lecturer, School of Tourism & Hotel Management, PMB 50, Gold Coast MC, QLD, 9726, Australia. Tel: +61 7 5552-8887; Fax: +61 7 5552-8507; E-mail: email@example.com
Inclusive and Accessible Special Event Planning: An Australian Perspective
Simon Darcy and Rob Harris
University of Technology, Sydney
People with disabilities have a right to access the full range of social activities and services available in a society. Nonetheless, the way that built and social environments are often constructed serves to restrict access of this group to a wide range of activities and hence compromise their rights as citizens. This article looks at how those engaged in the organization of events can facilitate the involvement of people with disabilities in the conferences, festivals, sporting, and other events that they conduct. The article begins by providing a brief overview of selected statistics and legislation associated with disability in Australia. It then looks at the operationalization of event disability planning in Australia through a review of complaint cases made under the Disability Discrimination Act, 1992. The review provides an insight into the current discriminatory practices employed by event and venue managers. The article then presents a "best practice" case study of the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games to show how disability and access issues were incorporated into the event planning and operations processes. The article concludes with some suggestions as to how event and venue managers can better incorporate people with disabilities into their programs.
Key words: Disabilities; Discriminatory practices; Accessibility; Special event planning; Australia
Address correspondence to Rob Harris, Senior Lecturer, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Faculty of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. Tel: 61 2 9514 5496; Fax: 61 2 9514 5195; E-mail: Rob.Harris@uts.edu.au
Making Sense of How Festivals Demonstrate a Community's Sense of Place
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW
The cultural aspects of a "way of life of a place" and a "sense of community" help us to better understand the processes of change being experienced in regional Australia. This article explores how community-based festivals grow over time to reflect the values, interests, and aspirations of residents. It presents observations of the nature of four community cultural festivals in destinations in the northern rivers region of NSW. The investigation explores how a sense of community and place are linked to such events. It seeks to establish how festivals develop and manage the tensions generated by different community voices. How community festivals reflect the community's sense of itself and its place validates the substantial shared interest by residents and visitors in such events.
Key words: Regional community cultural festivals; Sense of community; Sense of place; Events tourism
Address correspondence to Ros Derrett, Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia. Tel: 02 6620 3150; Fax: 02 6622208; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Brisbane Riverfestival: A Movement or a Whim?
John Aitken1 and Rob Harris2
1John Aitken Productions
2University of Technology, Sydney
This brief note examines how an event, the Brisbane Riverfestival, has sought to reestablish a relationship between a community and its river. It begins by examining the origins of the festival, and then moves on to discuss the changing relationship between the river and the people who live on, or near, its banks. The Riverfestival's development and broad elements are then examined, before a concluding section overviews its outcomes and future.