|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2
Event Management, Vol. 8, pp. 63-72
1525-9951/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Perceived Crowding and Its Relationship to Crowd Management Practices at Park and Recreation Events
Andrew J. Mowen,1 Hans G. Vogelsong,2 and Alan R. Graefe1
1The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
2East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
Event managers are often concerned with attracting a significant number of visitors in order to enhance event excitement and atmosphere. At the same time, these managers must also ensure that large crowds do not inhibit visitor enjoyment of event activities and opportunities. While crowding is typically discussed as a negative perception, recent research in retail and festival settings indicates that crowding can be perceived positively. Nevertheless, it is unknown how crowding perceptions might vary across different kinds of attractions within the same event. This study sought to document perceived crowding levels across a series of urban park and recreation events and determine if perceived crowding varied across different types of attractions (or subzones). The study also examined the role of perceived crowding in influencing visitor attitudes toward crowd management strategies. Findings indicated that, overall, event crowding was perceived positively and that the presence of other people enhanced visitor experiences. There were variations in perceived crowding across different event subzones. However, the nature of these relationships depended on the specific event. Generally, visitors reported more favorable crowding at the Main Stage Area and less favorable crowding at the Children's Craft Area and the Concession Area. Visitors who felt negatively crowded were more likely to support maintaining large distances between event attractions and being informed of the length of time for waiting in line. Future studies should continue to study perceived crowding and its relationship with customer service functions and desired event experiences.
Key words: Crowding levels; Crowd management; Crowding perceptions; Visitor attitudes
Address correspondence to Andrew J. Mowen, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Recreation Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 201B Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802. Tel: (814) 865-2102; Fax: (814) 863-4257; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Building a Diverse Attendance at Cultural Festivals: Embracing Oral History/Folklore in Strategic Ways
Alf H. Walle
University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Management, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6080
Cultural festivals that celebrate "serious" art are often shunned by a large percentage of the population. This tendency can reduce attendance by important segments of the public and, in the process, discourage the participation of both private and public sponsors. By incorporating elements of vernacular artistic expression into a festival that has historically concentrated on "serious" art and music, these difficulties can be overcome in useful, equitable, and mutually beneficial ways. The example of how the Erie Summer Festival of the Arts used an oral history/folklore program to attract underserved segments of the public, encouraged broad-based participation, and built a higher profile within the larger community provides a case study of how mainstream cultural festivals can be strategically broadened through the inclusion of vernacular artistic expression.
Key words: Strategy; Vernacular art; Folklore; Oral history; Nature; Fishing; Attendance; Diversity
Address correspondence to Alf H. Walle, Ph.D., University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Management, P.O. Box 756080, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6080. Tel: (907) 474-7461; Fax: (907) 474-5219; E-mail: email@example.com
Improving the Efficiency of Sporting Venues Through Capacity Management: The Case of the Sydney (Australia) Cricket Ground Trust
Paul Preda1 and Ted Watts2
1School of Business, Discipline of Accounting and Business
Law, The University of Sydney
2School of Business and Informatics, Australian Catholic University
Capacity management seeks to improve organizational effectiveness through improved operational efficiency and reduced congestion. The article contends that there are major similarities between manufacturing organizations and sporting venues with respect to issues of capacity management. This article reports the findings of two capacity management studies undertaken at a major sporting venue in Sydney, Australia, and relates the findings to capacity management theory articulated in current capacity literature and exhibited in existing management practice. It is proposed that by understanding the well-developed techniques presented in the production capacity literature, venue managers may be able to identify pockets of idle capacity and bottleneck problems. This identification should facilitate the control, if not the elimination, of specific areas of waste, which in turn should remove some of the hidden costs of capacity, thereby increasing the profit potential of an organization.
Key words: Sporting venues; Capacity management; Operational efficiency
Address correspondence to Dr. E. W. Watts, School of Business and Informatics, Australian Catholic University, PO Box 968, North Sydney NSW 2059, Australia. Tel: +(61 2) 9739 2939; Fax: +(61 2) 9739 2088; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Identifying Cultural Iconography: A Case Study of Canadian-American Festival
Philip Feifan Xie and David Groves
Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism Division, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403
Cultural iconography is often overlooked in the festival and special event because it conveys messages, but these messages are not always clearly expressed. The Canadian-American Festival in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, was chosen as a case study for the development of iconography by focusing upon cultural markers. The research employed thematic content analysis and mystery guest methodology to trace the evolution of this festival during 41 years. The findings suggest that cultural markers are an important indicator that can help assess the festival's importance.
Key words: Iconography; Cultural markers; Canadian-American Festival; Myrtle Beach; Content analysis; Mystery guest methodology
Address correspondence to Philip Feifan Xie, Sport Management, Recreation and Tourism Division, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Tel: (419) 372-6910; Fax: (419) 372-0383; E-mail: email@example.com
Continuance Commitment and Reasons to Quit: A Study of Volunteers at a Jazz Festival
Oslo University College, Faculty of Business, Public Administration and Social Work, Oslo, Norway
This article reports the results of a study of volunteers' continuance commitment and reasons to quit at a festival. The study of 221 volunteers at a large jazz festival in Norway indicated that both motivational factors and factors related to the festival context were important in explaining volunteers' continuance commitment. Furthermore, about 30% of the volunteers had considered quitting as a volunteer. Reasons why they had considered quitting as volunteers at the festival were also identified.
Key words: Volunteers; Continuance commitment; Motivational factors
Address correspondence to Beate Elstad, Dr.eocon., Associate Professor, Oslo University College, Faculty of Business, Public Administration and Social Work, Pilestredet 56, N-0167 Oslo, Norway. Tel: +47 22 45 35 06; Fax: +47 22 45 36 00; E-mail: Beate.Elstad@oks.hio.no