|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3
Event Management, Vol. 8, pp. 117-125
1525-9951/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Supplementing Event Economic Impact Results With Perspectives From Host Community Business and Opinion Leaders
Margaret J. Daniels,1 Kenneth F. Backman,2 and Sheila J. Backman2
1Department of Health, Fitness and Recreation Resources,
George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110-2203
2Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634
A limitation of many event impact studies is the failure to look beyond short-term economic effects of visitor spending. Using interview techniques, a broader understanding of the impacts of an event on a host community can be realized. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impacts of spectator spending at a large, annual sport event using input-output modeling and to supplement the results with in-depth interviews. On-site questionnaires were used to collect expenditure data from 881 spectators at a Professional Golf Association tournament. Following the event, focus group interviews were held with local business and opinion leaders. The interview results clarified and extended the economic impact findings. The combination of quantitative and qualitative impact results can assist event managers in making decisions that best meet the needs of visitors and the host community.
Key words: Event impacts; Input-output analysis; Focus group interviews
Address correspondence to Margaret J. Daniels, Ph.D., Department of Health, Fitness and Recreation Resources, 10900 University Boulevard, MS 4E5, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110-2203. Tel: (703) 993-4279; Fax: (703) 993-2025; E-mail: email@example.com
Media Management at Sport Events for Destination Promotion: Case Studies and Concepts
Donald Getz1 and Sheranne Fairley2
1Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary,
2Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia
The imputed links between media coverage of sport events and induced demand for host cities and destinations are discussed. Because it is so difficult to prove a causal link between media coverage and new demand, attention to improving media management of events is warranted. In this research case studies of media management for sport events in Gold Coast, Australia, were employed to assess stakeholder collaboration and media management methods. Practical implications are derived, and concepts are advanced for improved media management. In particular, the need for, and methods of, coordinated co-branding of events and destinations are examined. Research needs and priorities are identified, with specific reference to a hypothetical consumer decision-making model.
Key words: Sport events; Media management; Destination promotion; Image making; Co-branding; Gold Coast, Australia
Address correspondence to Donald Getz, Ph.D., Professor, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Tel: (403) 220-7158; Fax: (403) 282-0095; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Profiling the Special Event Nonattendee: An Initial Investigation
Laura M. Milner,1 Leo K. Jago,2 and Marg Deery2
1Alaska Institute of Tourism, School of Management, University
of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6080
2Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne City MC 8001, Australia
The current study uses the results of an origin-based survey to analyze those individuals who have not attended any special events within the last 5 years. The results indicate that those who do not go are older, retired, widowed, and have no children at home, in contrast to attendees who are younger, single, employed, and have children in the home. Implications for special events are discussed.
Key words: Special events; Barriers; Constraints; Leisure nonparticipation; Travel motivation
Address correspondence to Laura M. Milner, Ph.D., Professor of Marketing, Director, Alaska Institute of Tourism, School of Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6080. Tel: (907) 474-5294; Fax: (907) 474-5219; E-mail: email@example.com
Visitors' Perceptions of Authenticity at a Rural Heritage Festival: A Case Study
Philip Feifan Xie
Sport Management, Recreation, and Tourism Division, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403
Rural festivals have become increasingly important for creating recreational experiences, revitalizing isolated towns, and generating higher revenues. This article explores visitors' perceptions of authenticity regarding the Applebutter Festival in Grand Rapids, Ohio, as recorded by responses to a visitor survey. The results show that although visitors express strong interest in heritage festival and contribute significant economic impact to the festival, their perceptions of authenticity of the heritage resources remains superficial. Statistical analysis indicates that a stereotypical view of heritage was common and not all visitors regard heritage as a high priority. The recommendations for the future development of rural festivals are proposed based upon the findings.
Key words: Authenticity; Heritage; Rural festival; Folk village; Applebutter Festival, Ohio
Address correspondence to Philip Feifan Xie, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Sport Management, Recreation, and Tourism Division, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Tel: (419) 372-6910; Fax: (419) 372-0383; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Residents' Perceptions of Kitchener-Waterloo Oktoberfest: An Inductive Analysis
Honggen Xiao and Stephen L. J. Smith
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
This article examines residents' perceptions of the Kitchener-Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) Oktoberfest. Data were taken from the 2002 Kitchener-Waterloo Oktoberfest Community Survey. Responses from 232 participants to an open-ended question were analyzed using the grounded theory approach to identify typologies of participants and perception patterns. A typology of four participant roles, each with specific role dimensions, is proposed to account for the diversity of residents' perceptions of ethnic cultural events in the multicultural community. Two themes emerge with regard to the preservation of ethnic cultural heritage and cultural change in this increasingly multicultural mosaic. These findings are discussed in the context of literature pertinent to image, pseudo-events and staged authenticity, acculturation, and impacts. Implications of the research and future study options are also suggested.
Key words: Residents' perceptions; Cultural events; Typology; Participant roles; Grounded theory; Oktoberfest; Kitchener-Waterloo
Address correspondence to Honggen Xiao, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Tel: 001-519-888-4567, ext. 3894; Fax: 001-519-886-2440; E-mail: email@example.com
Assessing Accommodation Readiness for the 2002 World Cup: The Role of Korean-Style Inns
Department of Tourism, Hanyang University, 17, Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul, 133-791 Korea
The FIFA World Cup is a special event that has economic, cultural, and political impacts on host nations. Therefore, preparation requires careful attention to accommodation readiness because a huge volume of budget-conscious visitors stay for a specific period and leave after the event. Yogwans, Korean-style small inns, were used as an accommodation alternative to tourist hotels for the 1986 Asian Games and the 1988 Olympic Games and played an important role in the successful accommodation preparations for the 2002 World Cup. The important elements that made yogwan preparations successful were analyzed. They include owner concerns (profitability, understanding of information management systems, and foreign culture familiarity), information exchange (reservation interface, distribution of terminals, and training programs), and resource availability (room supply based on demand). This study concluded that yogwans can be effectively utilized with improvements as an alternative type of accommodation in Korea for future special events.
Key words: Special event; World Cup; Yogwan; Korea
Address correspondence to Minho Cho, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, Hanyang University, 17, Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul, 133-791 Korea. Tel: 822-2290-0865; Fax: 822-2294-2593; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org