|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4
Event Management, Vol. 8, pp. 191-202
1525-9951/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Cross-Cultural Research Issues in Developing International Tourist Markets for Cultural Events
Victoria University, Australia
Cross-cultural issues and research are fundamental to much tourism marketing and especially to developing international tourist markets for cultural events and festivals. With increasing globalization aided by developments in travel and information technology, growing international tourist markets present potentially significant and increasing market opportunities for cultural events throughout the world. In an increasingly competitive marketplace, in order to attract tourist markets, events and festivals need an understanding of these markets and the relevant marketing theories, practices, and strategies. Understanding tourists' motivation and behavior is essential to identifying attractive tourist market segments in the first instance and then to developing appropriate marketing strategies to attract these segments. Within this environment, the importance of cross-cultural issues and research to tourism marketing and the development of tourist markets are apparent, and yet cross-cultural tourism research to date has been limited. Cross-cultural tourism research in relation to cultural events is even more limited. Cross-cultural tourism marketing research also presents some unique challenges, numerous environmental and methodological problems, and associated costs. These numerous problems, challenges, and costs may in their own right prevent cross-cultural issues and problems from being investigated. Some of these problems can also make the results of some of the existing cross-cultural research suspect. Such problems could well account for the limited amount of cross-cultural tourism marketing research that has been undertaken, even though the potential benefits from such research can be great. This article examines the use and application of cross-cultural tourism research by cultural events. It also outlines some of the unique challenges, issues, and problems that need to be addressed in future cross-cultural tourism marketing research to improve its application, use, and findings, and ensure the benefits outweigh the costs.
Key words: Cross-cultures; Tourism markets; Cultural events
Address correspondence to Pandora Kay, Lecturer in Marketing, School of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne City MC 8001, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9688 5367; Fax: 61 3 9688 4931; E-mail: Pandora.Kay@vu.edu.au
Tourist Characteristics and Their Interest in Attending Festivals and Events: An Anglophone/Francophone Case Study of New Brunswick, Canada
Université da Moncton, Canada
In 2001, the Province of New Brunswick, Canada, undertook a survey of 4990 tourists. Among those, 1101 (22%) were interested in participating in local festivals and special events. Using the data provided in this survey, the purpose of this article was to examine the other interests and travel motivations and behaviors of this group and to outline any differences between French- and English-speaking respondents. The proportion of Francophones interested in local festivals and special events was 19% compared with 23% for their Anglophone counterparts. With regards to travel behavior, both Francophones and Anglophones put "customer service" as their top priority. While there were differences in the motivation and behavior between the two groups, this was marginal. The article suggests that we require a greater understanding of tourists as attendees of festivals and events and that recognizing the cultural backgrounds of the audience is increasingly important.
Key words: Anglophone; Francophone; Local festival; Travel behaviors
Address correspondence to Marc LeBlanc, Professeur, École de kinésiologie et de récréologie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, N.-B., E1A 3E9 Canada. Tel: (506) 858-3776; Fax: (506) 858-4308; E-mail: email@example.com
Motivational Factors of Local Residents to Attend the Aardklop National Arts Festival
Ciná Van Zyl and Christel Botha
University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
The city of Potchefstroom in South Africa hosts the annual Aardklop National Arts Festival. The first festival in 1998 attracted 25,000 visitors, increasing to 60,000 in its second year and to over 100,000 by 2001. This festival is one of 79 festivals held in South Africa annually. As visitors can attend other national and international festivals, the goals of the study included determining the motivational factors that push and pull the local residents of Potchefstroom to attend and participate in the festival, the festival activities they enjoy most, and also the situational inhibitors discouraging them from attending the festival. A nonrandom sampling method--quota sampling--was used for selecting local residents, using a map of Potchefstroom to identify all of its residential areas. Households were randomly selected. The quota sample contained an equal number of respondents from the high and lower socioeconomic areas, and equal numbers of men and women in three age groups (screening questions excluded those who did not fit the criteria). As little research has been done so far on the pull factors motivating local residents, the findings may assist festival organizers with strategies for marketing and communication, and in considering the needs of the host community that plays such a pivotal role in the sustainability of a festival.
Key words: South Africa; Arts festivals; Audience motivations
Address correspondence to Ciná van Zyl, Senior Lecturer, Department of Transport Economics and Logistics (Tourism Management), UNISA University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Pretoria, 0003, South Africa. Tel: +27 12 429 4316; Fax: +27 12 429 4678; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Trinidad Carnival: Festival Tourism and Cultural Industry
University of the West Indies, Trinidad & Tobago
The Trinidad Carnival is one of the most well-known festivals in the Americas along with the famous Rio Carnival in Brazil and the Mardi Gras in New Orleans. The value of the Trinidad Carnival in terms of its artistic excellence and affirmation of cultural identity are well documented. However, the economic contribution of the festival has received less than due attention. This article analyzes the economic impact of the Trinidad Carnival on the tourism and cultural industries as well as on the wider economy. It involves an evaluation of the direct economic contribution of the festival's foreign exchange earnings and export of goods and services in sectors such as the hotel, airline, and cultural industries. The analysis will specifically look at tourist arrivals, visitor expenditures, and hotel occupancy rates. It uses the findings of visitor exit surveys for a 5-year period to estimate the contribution of visitor expenditures. The economic impact assessment involves a cost-benefit evaluation and an analysis of the division of costs and surpluses.
Key words: Trinidad; Carnival tourism; Economic impact; Cultural industry sectors
Address correspondence to Dr. Keith Nurse, Institute of International Relations, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago. Tel: (868) 620-6568; Fax: (868) 663-9685; E-mail: Keith@Cablenett.Net
Attitudes of Residents and Tourists Towards the Use of Urban Historic Sites for Festival Events
Hisham S. Gabr
Cairo University, Egypt
Historical sites in the City of Dubai have recently been used for events during the city's popular tourist attraction, the annual winter Dubai Shopping Festival (DSF). This article investigates the possibility of productive and sustainable use of historical sites for events during the DSF, while preserving the heritage, integrity, and fragile built environment of these sites. The aim of this development strategy is to attract more visitors, to attract special types of tourists, to promote cultural experiences, and to enhance the market economy. Representative samples of residents and potential tourists were surveyed to assess their attitudes towards possible uses of historic sites. Among the factors studied in the survey are consumer acceptance of the idea of exploiting historic sites for festival events, perceived meanings of the preservation of historic buildings, suggestions for kinds of possible use, and opinions on strategies use. The results of the study could assist the Historical Building Section of the Dubai Municipality to decide appropriate uses of the historic sites that are under their jurisdiction. Moreover, the findings should serve architects and help developers to understand development needs and requirements that support sustainable goals of environmentally sensitive and culturally rich historic sites.
Key words: Historic buildings; Heritage conservation; Festivals and events; Tourism; Sustainable development; Dubai
Address correspondence to Hisham S. Gabr, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt. E-mail: email@example.com