ognizant Communication Corporation



Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 1-11
1525-9951/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Key Success Factors in Regional Festivals: Some Australian Experiences

Clare Lade and Julie Jackson

School of Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

The state of Victoria, Australia, suffers from a scarcity of iconic natural advantages, to attract both domestic and international visitors, relative to those possessed by other Australian states, such as the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland or Uluru in the Northern Territory. As a result, event tourism based on cultural activities becomes a key differentiator for tourism in Victoria. Regional events now play a significant role in the Victorian tourism product with the state hosting over 60 regional tourism events and festivals each year. The contribution of these events and festivals to regional and state economies is important, as is the contribution they make to social and cultural development in regional Victoria. However, they are often developed and planned in a manner that may not lead to the success originally anticipated by organizers. Hence, any means developed to enhance their chances of success may be considered valuable. This article studies the development of two regional Australian festivals and the range of factors that contributed to their success, including the degree of market orientation, analyzed within a framework suggested by Mayfield and Crompton. A heightened awareness of underlying key success factors for these two festivals is likely to assist organizers of other festivals in prolonging their destination's life cycle and to maximize the potential benefits associated with staging the festival.

Key words: Market orientation; Success factors; Regional tourism

Address correspondence to Julie Jackson, Ph.D., School of Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3086. Tel: +61 3 9479 2847; E-mail: julie.jackson@latrobe.edu.au

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 13-26
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Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Expectations of Volunteers Prior to the XVII Commonwealth Games, 2002: A Qualitative Study

Rita Ralston,1 Paul Downward,2 and Les Lumsdon3

1International Centre for Research and Consultancy, Manchester Metropolitan University
2Business School, Staffordshire University
3Department of Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Central Lancashire

The XVII Commonwealth Games in Manchester, from July 25 to August 4, 2002, was the largest Commonwealth Games (the Games) and multisporting event ever held in the UK and required the recruitment and training of the largest volunteer workforce in the UK in recent decades. While much has been written about volunteering within different contextual backgrounds, and in relation to large-scale events, little research has addressed the issue of expectations of volunteers and their attitude towards functional management during the run up to a major international event. Using a qualitative research approach with focus groups this study addresses these issues. In terms of expectations, a number of key factors were identified in relation to the recruitment, training, and other management dimensions of the Games that have implications for volunteer motivation, responses to the psychological contract and the long term impact of a major event.

Key words: Volunteering; volunteer expectations; sport event; Commonwealth Games; focus group

Address correspondence to Rita Ralston, International Centre for Research and Consultancy, Manchester Metropolitan University, Old Hall Lane, Manchester M14 6HR, UK. Tel: 00 44 161 247 2734; Fax: 00 44 161 247 6334; E-mail: r.ralston@mmu.ac.uk

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 27-37
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Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Application of the Recreational Specialization Framework to Understanding Visitors to the Great Salt Lake Bird Festival

Steven W. Burr1 and David Scott2

1Institute for Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-5220
2Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

The recreational specialization framework is a potentially useful tool for understanding the characteristics of people who attend festivals and special events. In this study, we sought to determine the level of birding specialization among visitors to the Third Annual Great Salt Lake Bird Festival (GSLBF), and whether or not level of specialization was related to visitors' motives and satisfaction with the event. Findings from this study indicate the GSLBF attracts people who range markedly in terms of level of specialization. A small fraction of visitors can be described as being highly specialized or serious about birdwatching. Findings also revealed that the dimensions of specialization varied in terms of their relationship to visitors' motivations and satisfaction. Skill and commitment were related to these constructs but in very different ways. Commitment was positively related to birdwatching motives and festival satisfaction. Although level of skill was not significantly related to either of the two dimensions of motivations, it was highly and negatively related to overall satisfaction. Overall, results show the recreational specialization framework can be used effectively to better understand visitors to a variety of festivals and events organized around one or more leisure activities.

Key words: Recreational specialization; Motivations; Birdwatching; Festivals and special events

Address correspondence to Steven W. Burr, Institute for Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, Utah State University, 5220 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-5220. Tel: (435) 797-7094; Fax: (435) 797-4048; E-mail: steve.burr@usu.edu

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 39-49
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Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Challenge of Retaining Personnel in Major Sport Event Organizations

Clare Hanlon1 and Leo Jago2

1School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance and 2Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

This research studies two major sport event organizations and explores the specialized approaches used to retain personnel for the purpose of a major sport event. The analysis was based on data obtained from semistructured interviews with managers at the Australian Open Tennis Championships (AOTC) and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix (AFOGP). Analysis of the data revealed that due to the nature of these events, a customized retention process for various personnel categories during the different stages of an event cycle was appropriate. Of particular concern was the need for tailored retention strategies for full-time personnel in the first couple of months after an event, and for seasonal personnel in between events. Consequently, modifications to the generic retention management practices were suggested, in order to cater for the special demands of major sport events. Strategies were developed from these research findings that should improve the management of personnel retention at the AOTC and AFOGP. The strategies build upon the present body of literature in this field, and should have application in other major sport event organizations.

Key words: Recruitment; Personnel; Major sport event organizations

Address correspondence to Clare Hanlon, Ph.D., School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, PO Box 14428 MCMC, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9218 3268; Fax: 61 3 9218 3413; E-mail: clare.hanlon@vu.edu.au

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 51-59
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Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Funding Cultural Events in Croatia: Tourism-Related Policy Issues

Renata Tomljenovic and Sanda Weber

Institute for Tourism, Croatia

Research of festival organizers and regional tourism officials in Croatia was conducted to explore the level of congruence between their two groups on the subject of goals and why festivals should be funded. Results of interviews reveal that both groups of professionals have a poorly developed understanding of the potential value of festivals for tourism, and that little thought has been given to impact measures or funding criteria. Recommendations are made to improve knowledge of the issues, and setting criteria for funding.

Key words: Festivals; Goals congruence; Funding criteria; Tourism; Croatia

Address correspondence to Renata Tomljenovic, Institute for Tourism, Vrhovec 5, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia. Tel: +385 1 3909 666; Fax: +385 1 3909 667; E-mail: renata.tomljenovic@iztzg.hr

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 61-71
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Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Strategic Use of Events Within Local Government: A Study of London Borough Councils

Craig Pugh1 and Emma H. Wood2

1First Protocol Event Management Ltd, London, UK
2UK Centre for Event Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK

The public sector has long been the provider of special events with the requirements for public assembly, and, in more recent years, community events such as those related to the Millennium and the Queen's Golden Jubilee celebrations have increased local government involvement. Events have become an integral part of the collective communities' psyche in terms of celebration of culture and as a demonstration of civic pride providing social as well as economic benefits. Previous research has shown that it is possible for public sector marketing strategies to utilize events strategically to bring long-term economic and social benefits to the location and its community. This article builds on the work undertaken by Bennett and Koudelova into the image creation of downtown areas in London and New York, which recommended that a more "strategic" marketing orientation within the Councils was preferable to an "operational" marketing orientation, which was found to be restrictive and negative. This research attempted to ascertain whether or not events are being used strategically or operationally within the marketing plans of London Borough Councils. In-depth interviews with four borough councils were used to gather first-hand data supplemented by the analysis of relevant documentation. The findings indicate that the place marketing functions of these Councils can be carried out in a more effective way through the use of events that are integrated into a strategic plan. Although the boroughs investigated are moving towards a more strategic use of events, the focus is still operational and ad hoc, resulting in missed opportunities. The benefits of a wider long-term use of events within place marketing strategies are clear; however, the funding and organizational structure of local authorities can create barriers to achieving this.

Key words: Local government; Marketing; Strategic events

Address correspondence to Emma H. Wood, UK Centre for Event Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, Calverley Street, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 113 2832600; E-mail: E.wood@leedsmet.ac.uk

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 73-89
1525-9951/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Predicting the Behavioral Dependability of Sport Event Volunteers

Graham Cuskelly,1 Christopher Auld,2 Maureen Harrington,1 and Denis Coleman3

1Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
2University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

The dependability of volunteers in completing work assignments can impact upon the financial and operational success of major sport events and presents a significant challenge for event organizers. Despite the short-term nature of many events and the apparently manageable level of commitment, volunteers sometimes exhibit less than satisfactory levels of compliance to assigned tasks. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the behavioral dependability of operational-level volunteers at major sport events. A preevent and postevent survey protocol was used to gather data from volunteers (n = 391) at five events. The study measured the attitudes and beliefs of event volunteers and their self-reported level of behavioral dependability. Using multiple regression analysis, the study found that a number of attitudinal beliefs about volunteering, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predicted behavioral dependability. It was concluded that the TPB was a useful theoretical framework for conceptualizing and predicting the behavior of major event volunteers but the generalizability of these findings was limited because the significant predictors of dependability were not consistent across all of the events studied.

Key words: Behavioral dependability; Volunteers; Sport events; Predictors

Address correspondence to Graham Cuskelly, Associate Professor, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Brisbane Queensland 4111, Australia. Tel: 61 7 38755750; Fax: 61 7 38755661; E-mail: g.cuskelly@griffith.edu.au

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 91-94
1525-9951/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Redefining a Festival Visitor: A Case Study of Vendors Attending Scottish Highland Games in the United States

Deepak Chhabra

Sustainable Tourism Development Program, Division of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614

This study redefines a festival visitor and divides him/her into spectator, participant, and vendor segments. This study further focuses on vendors and assesses their travel and spending behavior. Samples used are those selling Scottish merchandize at the Scottish Highland Games across the US. The analyses reveal interesting results. Non-Scottish American vendors and those having a higher income dependency on Highland Games tend to travel further to attend these events. Vendors with lower authenticity perceptions of their merchandize tend to spend more on Highland Games visits. Finally, the study results indicate that the vendors generate positive economic impacts for the host regions.

Key words: Marketing; Vendors; Highland Games; Festivals; Expenditures; Economic benefits

Address correspondence to Deepak Chhabra, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Sustainable Tourism Development Program, Division of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services, University of Northern Iowa, 203 Wellness/Recreation Center, Cedar Falls, IA 50614. Tel: (319) 273-3224; Fax: (319) 273-5958; E-mail: deepak.chhabra@uni.edu

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 95-101
1525-9951/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Evolution in Event Management: The Gold Coast's Wintersun Festival

Trevor Mules

School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia

Event management is an emerging field of research and education, paralleling the growth in events themselves as part of the tourism industry. The events industry has been keen that employees receive more formal management training. This raises the question of what makes event management different from any other form of management? Most event management texts appear to cover the basic management skill areas of marketing, finance, human resource management, and coordination. There are two areas where event management may differ from management in general: 1) Events have a unique and all-consuming climax, which is not typical of other management areas, and 2) Most events are a form of entertainment and therefore require staging. In addition, most events involve an element of risk--things can occur that are outside of management control. This type of risk is not unique to events, but it is brought into sharper focus in event management because the event manager has only one chance to manage the risk. This article uses an event management case study in the form of the Gold Coast (Australia) Wintersun Festival to illustrate how management of an event has evolved from being almost nonexistent in the 1980s, to a low-key but sophisticated approach involving strategy, marketing, stakeholder involvement, and innovation. It also discusses the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

Key words: Event management; Festival management strategy; Innovation in festivals

Address correspondence to Trevor Mules, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, PMB 50, Gold Coast, Qld. 9726 Australia. Tel: 61 7 5552 8798; Fax: 61 7 5552 8507; E-mail: t.mules@griffith.edu.au

Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 103-109
1525-9951/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Event Management: A New Profession?

Vicky Harris

Tourism, Hospitality and Events School, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, LSI 3HE UK

The notion that the events industry in the UK is becoming more professional is gaining currency. Yet there has been little or no examination of what such a term means in principle or in practice. Following a review of definitions, the article draws on research that has been undertaken in the context of other occupations and examines its application to the events industry. It goes on to propose a potential model of events professionalism that integrates the traditional and ``new'' definitions of professionalism.

Key words: Professional; Professionalism; Professionalization; Event management

Address correspondence to Vicky Harris, Head of School, Tourism, Hospitality and Events School, Leeds Metropolitan University, Calverley Street, Leeds, LSI 3HE UK. Tel: 44 113 2835937; Fax: 44 113 2833122; E-mail: v.harris@leedsmet.ac.uk