|ognizant Communication Corporation|
(Formerly FESTIVAL MANAGEMENT & EVENT TOURISM)
VOLUME 9, NUMBER 4
Event Management, Vol. 9, pp. 169-183
1525-9951/06 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The 20th Greek Festival of Sydney: A Stakeholder Analysis
Spiros Spiropoulos,1 Dimitris Gargalianos,2 and Kalliopi (Popi) Sotiriadou3
1ATHENS 2004 Torch Relay, Athens, Greece
2Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Democritus University, Greece
3Bowater School of Management & Marketing, Deakin University, Australia
In response to the demand for the adoption of a corporate culture by not-for-profit festivals, festival organizations increasingly identify strategic planning process and stakeholder management as crucial components for successful events. The purpose of this article is to present a framework developed for categorizing ethnic festivals stakeholders from a functional role (i.e., marketing, administration, and production) and an ethnic origin (i.e., Greek, Greek-Australian, and non-Greek origin) orientated perspective. The proposed framework was developed and applied to the 20th Greek Festival of Sydney (GFS), which was held in 2002, by identifying, categorizing, and examining the role of its stakeholders in the management and delivery of the event. The identification of the type of stakeholders, the ways they influence the GFS organization, and the strategic implications that derived from their involvement are addressed. The methodology utilized to develop the stakeholder framework was qualitative in nature. It combined triangulated data that derived from a number of interviews with representatives from the GFS administration, participant observations, and content analysis of internal documents and reports. The GFS stakeholder analysis offered an understanding of the several marketing-, administration-, and production-related strategic implications to the organization and running of the festival, such as the impact on its content, participants, and future development. The proposed framework derives from the GFS case study, yet it has the potential to be used for the examination of stakeholders' strategic implications to other ethnic festivals.
Key words: Ethnic festivals; Event stakeholder; Stakeholder functions; Strategic planning
Address correspondence to Spiros Spiropoulos, Master of Management in Arts Management, Section Manager, ATHENS 2004 Torch Relay, 3 Dimitsanis St, 15342, Athens, Greece. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Towards an International Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK)
Julia Rutherford Silvers,1 Glenn A. J. Bowdin,2 William J. O'Toole,3 and Kathleen Beard Nelson4
1Speaking of Events & Adjunct Faculty, University of
Nevada Las Vegas, USA
2UK Centre for Events Management, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
3Project Management Graduate Programme, University of Sydney, Australia
4William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada Las Vegas, USA
There is increasing global interest in the requirements necessary to practice the complex and responsibility-laden business of event management as evidenced by the growth of the number of academic, credentialing, knowledge transfer, and qualification standards programs focusing on the field in place and in development around the world. Educators, regulators, associations, and practitioners are seeking to create and improve curriculums, reduce risk, employ best practices, and achieve recognition as a legitimate profession. This article presents an overview of the current status of the knowledge systems supporting the event management industry and offers a framework for an international event management body of knowledge (EMBOK) that may facilitate the ability to map, define, and align current event management standards consistent with the needs of a global event management environment.
Key words: Body of knowledge; Conceptual framework; Event management; Standards; Education; Event management body of knowledge (EMBOK)
Address correspondence to Kathleen Nelson, Ph.D., CSEP, CMP, Tourism & Convention Administration Department, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 456023, Las Vegas, NV 89154-6023, USA. Tel: 702-895-3931; Fax: 702-895-4870; E-mail: kathy.nelson@UNLV.edu
Impacts of Terrorism-Related Safety and Security Measures at a Major Sport Event
Tracy Taylor1 and Kristine Toohey2
1Graduate School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney,
Broadway NSW 2007, Australia
2Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Australia
In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, major sport event organizers have had to grapple with a range of associated impacts, including increased security costs and changed stakeholder expectations. Event organizers have acted to realize a balance between effective risk management measures that offer appropriate security while not unduly deterring from spectators' enjoyment of the event. To better understand the post 9/11 sport event environment and attendee reactions, we surveyed 2003 Rugby World Cup attendees on aspects related to terrorism, risk, safety and security. We found that the majority of attendees felt safe and indicated that the security measures in place neither enhanced nor detracted from their level of enjoyment. A substantial proportion of event attendees were either openly defiant about terrorism or dismissive of any threat to their security. Implications for event managers are discussed.
Key words: Terrorism-related safety; Security measures; Sport events; Event impacts
Address correspondence to A/Professor Tracy Taylor, Ph.D., Head, Graduate School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia. Tel: 61 2 9514 3664; Fax: 61 2 9514 3557; E-mail: Tracy.Taylor@uts.edu.au
Sociodemographics and Visiting Patterns of Arts Festivals in South Africa
Andrea Saayman1 and Melville Saayman2
1School of Economics and 2Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
Event organizers strive towards growth in visitor numbers and income generation, in order to maximize the value of the festival. This article analyses the sociodemographics of three major arts festivals in the Republic of South Africa and attempts to show the complex relationship among sociodemographics and the visiting patterns of three arts festivals, held in different locations. The aim is to determine the sociodemographic profile of a typical "high-spending" and "show-attending" festival-goer (festino), and the methodology to achieve this aim includes the use of logit and probit regressions. The analysis identifies the aspects of sociodemographics pertaining to arts festivals that are dominant. The latter can then be used to develop a market profile of visitors and therefore a marketing plan.
Key words: Sociodemographics; Arts festivals; South Africa; Marketing
Address correspondence to Andrea Saayman, Associate Professor in the School of Economics, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa. E-mail: email@example.com
Impact Analysis of a Tourism Festival on Tourists' Destination Images
Soyoung Boo and James A. Busser
William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
There are few empirical studies on the contribution of tourism festivals toward destination image improvement. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of a planned festival, which was organized by local government to attract tourists, to the improvement of destination image. Image differences before and after the visit, between festival participants and nonparticipants, between festival recognition and nonrecognition groups, between information request and nonrequest groups were analyzed. The results showed that the tourism festival in this study did not contribute to a positive image formation for festival participants. The study further found that the festival's quality and promotion were related to negative image change. Longitudinal research on the contribution of festivals toward positive image improvement is needed in the future.
Key words: Tourism festival; Destination images; Festival experiences; Festival quality; Festival promotion
Address correspondence to Soyoung Boo, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 456017, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. Tel: 702-895-4458; Fax: 702-895-4870; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org