ognizant Communication Corporation

(title changed to EVENT MANAGEMENT as of Volume 6, Number 1, 2000)

VOLUME 5, NUMBERS 1-4, 1998

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 1-8, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Mega-Event Displacement of Visitors: The World Championship in Athletics, Göteborg 1995

Lars Hultkrantz

Centre for Research on Transportation and Socitety, Dalarna University, SE-781 88 Borlänge, Sweden

This article questions the often used approach of assessing tourism impact of a mega-event from just attendance numbers. From guest nights data to the Göteborg region, we find that the short-term attraction effect on visitors from abroad of the World Championship in Athletics (WCA95) was neutralized, probably because domestic and foreign event attendants were "crowding out" regular foreign tourists to this region. Results are obtained by general-to-specific estimation of autoregressive distributive lags (ARDL) models on monthly accommodation numbers data for the Göteborg and Bohuslän counties 1978-96.

Key words: Mega-events; Tourism impact; Autoregressive distributive lags; World Championship in Athletics

Address correspondence to Lars Hultkrantz. Fax: +46-23778501; E-mail: lhult@cts.du.se

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 9-19, 1998
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Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Resident Perceptions of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games-Year II

Brian J. Mihalik1 and Leo Simonetta2

1School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078
2Georgia Poll Administrator, Applied Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302

An ongoing study of the perceptions of the host population for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games has been implemented to determine support for the Olympics, willingness to attend the Games, and expectations of potential benefits. Data were collected in 1992 and 1993 through two telephone interviews of randomly selected residents of the state of Georgia. Findings indicate continued but decreasing support and willingness to attend, and high, though diminished, expectations of benefits in all areas.

Key words: Tourism benefits; Hallmark events; 1996 Summer Olympics

Address correspondence to Brian J. Mihalik. Tel: (405) 744-6713; Fax: (405) 744-6299.

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 21-32, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Special Events: A Conceptual and Definitional Framework

Leo K. Jago1 and Robin N. Shaw2

1Department of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, and 2Center for Hospitality and Tourism Research, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia

Although special events have become an important element of the leisure and tourism product in many regions, there is still no widely accepted definitional framework for the term "special event." This article seeks to address this problem by proposing a conceptual and definitional framework based upon an extensive review of the published literature on special events. The literature review identified the key attributes that researchers have used to describe special events. These attributes are then prioritized into core and qualifying, so that a definitional framework can be presented based on the hierarchy of attributes identified by researchers. A schema is presented to illustrate the relationship between the various categories of special events.

Key words: Special events; Conceptual framework; Definitional framework

Address correspondence to Leo K. Jago, Department of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, Victoria University, City Campus, PO Box 14428, MCMC, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia. Tel: (613) 9248 1264; Fax: (613) 9248 1064; E-mail: leo=jago@vut.edu.au

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 33-50, 1998
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Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Information Sharing Among Festival Managers

Donald Getz

Tourism Management, Faculty of Management, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, N.W., Calagry, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada

Festival managers in Calgary, Alberta, and Fredericton, New Brunswick, were questioned on their attitudes toward, and practices of, information sharing. In general, it was found that managers are predisposed to share with other festivals, although there is some reluctance to reveal very much about sponsors and funding sources. Formal benchmarking was not undertaken, but many ad hoc and informal methods are used to exchange information and ideas. Various "learning avenues" were revealed, in which same-genre exchanges are clearly favored. Most sharing concerns programming and ideas related to tangible elements of event production, rather than to management systems. Findings are discussed in the context of learning organizations and organizational culture, with both theoretical and practical implications being drawn.

Key words: Festival management; Information sharing; Calgary, Alberta; Fredericton, New Brunswick; Organizational culture; Learning organizations

Address correspondence to Donald Getz. Tel: (403) 220-7158; Fax: (403) 282-0095; E-mail: getz@acs.ucalgary.ca

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 51-58, 1998
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Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Economic Impact of a Birding Festival

Chulwon Kim,1 David Scott,1 John F. Thigpen,2 and Seong-Seop Kim1

1Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843
2Institute for Coastal and Marine Resources, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858

The purpose of this study is to determine the direct, indirect, and induced impact of a birding festival on a local economy. Nonresident visitors to the 7th Annual Hummer/Bird Celebration (September 7-10, 1995) in Rockport/Fulton region, Texas, spent over $1.1 million. Substantial economic impacts were also realized in terms of total gross output, employee compensation, and employment. The results indicate that spending among nonresident visitors contributed about $2.5 million in total gross output in the local community. In addition, it contributed about $0.8 million in personal income and also contributed about 73 full-time and/or part-time jobs to the local community. By documenting the direct, indirect, and induced impacts of birding festivals, event organizers and community leaders may be in a better position to create interest in preserving natural resources and birding habitats. This study will provide event organizers and community leaders with microeconomic data, which may be useful for their investment decisions related to future birding festivals.

Key words: Birding festivals; Economic impact; Hummer/Bird Celebration; Multiplier

Address correspondence to Chulwon Kim, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 354 Francis Hall, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (409) 862-3069; E-mail: Ckim@rpts.tamu.edu

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 59-70, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Motives of Volunteers in Multicultural Events: The Case of Saskatoon Folkfest

Farouk Saleh and Clarke Wood

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

Although the motives behind volunteering have been studied extensively, most research has focused on volunteers in social services. In this article, the authors examined the demographic make-up of volunteers at a specific multicultural festival and their motives behind participating in the event. The findings indicate that volunteers in these events have similar demographic characteristics to other, more conventional volunteers, and some similar conventional motives. However, volunteers at ethno-cultural events are also strongly motivated by a pride in their culture and a desire to maintain ties to their ethno-cultural groups. The study also found that younger volunteers tended to have a more peripheral involvement in such activities, and were more motivated than "core" volunteers by social rather than cultural factors. The article concludes that this may have serious ramifications for the long-term sustainability of such festivals and events.

Key words: Volunteers; Volunteer motives; Multicultural festivals; Ethno-cultural; Cultural events

Address correspondence to Clarke Wood, 406-2001 Cronwall St., Regina, SK, Canada 57H 0L8. Tel: (306) 359-1023; E-mail: clarkew@sk.sympatico.ca

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 71-83, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

New Zealand Events: A Temporal and Regional Analysis

Chris Ryan,1 Alan Smee,2 Sharon Murphy,3 and Don Getz4

1Tourism Programme, Centre for Tourism Studies, Waikato University, Hamilton, New Zealand
2Department of Marketing and 3Management Systems, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
4Don Getz, Department of Management, University of Calgary, Canada

This article reports results derived from an analysis of the events database created by the authors for the New Zealand Tourism Board. There were no significant changes in geographical distribution of events since 1994. Six regions accounted for two thirds of all the events, but when regional population was taken into account, it was shown that Canterbury and Wellington were the major organizers of events. These two areas also had the highest average numbers of visitors per event. Although many events, particularly certain sporting events, had a long history, the great majority were of comparatively recent origin. This might reflect the growing interest of tourist organizations to develop new products to attract higher numbers of tourists and additional tourist spending.

Key words: Events; Festivals; Tourism; New Zealand tourism

Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, Tourism Programme, Centre for Management Studies, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3015, Hamilton, New Zealand. E-mail: cryan@waikato.ac.nz

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 101-122, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Beyond Intermezzo? On the Long-Term Industrial Impacts of Mega-Events: The Case of Lillehammer 1994

Olav R. Spilling

Center for Industrial Development and Entrepreneurship, Norwegian School of Management, PO Box 580, 1301 Sandvika, Norway

This article focuses on the long-term industrial impacts of the Winter Olympics organized in Lillehammer in 1994. Three types of impacts related to the mega-event are outlined: 1) intermezzo, 2) permanent lift of industrial activity to a new plateau, and 3) change of long-term growth rate. After discussing methodological issues related to this kind of study, data covering various aspects of the development in the region of Lillehammer are presented. The industrial impacts of the Olympics may be characterized as an intermezzo: most economic activity occurred before, during, and a short time after the games, and most sectors were back to normal level of activity shortly after the games. In some areas, however, long-term impacts may be observed, and this is mainly due to the development of an improved infrastructure, new sports facilities, new tourist attractions, and a significant expansion of the hotel industry. The region has developed as a significant center for events. Three tourist destinations, among them Lillehammer itself, have for some years experienced a growth significantly above the national average, but this growth seemed to culminate during 1997. There has also been a significant population growth in the city of Lillehammer, which partly is interpreted as an impact of the Winter Olympics. However, this impact also seemed to culminate in 1997. According to a rough estimate, there has been a long-term employment effect of around 400-500 full-time equivalents. The tourism industry has contributed most to this growth, but some employment effect has occurred in other sectors as well. However, in contrast to what was originally expected, little new dynamism has been created in the region. To a large extent the growth in Lillehammer is based on reallocation of resources within the country, and only marginal contributions have been given to national growth. Thus, the long-term impacts are very marginal and out of proportion compared to the huge costs of hosting the Games.

Key words: Mega-event; Winter Olympics; Long-term impacts; Lillehammer 1994

Address correspondence to Olav R. Spilling. Tel: +47 6757 0863; Fax: +47 6757 0520; E-mail: olav.spilling@bi.no

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 123-130, 1998
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Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Application of Desktop Mapping as a Marketing Tool for Special Events Planning and Evaluation: A Case Study of the Newport News Celebration in Lights

Peter J. Verhoven,1 David L. Wall,2 and Stuart Cottrell1

1Department of Leisure Studies, Christopher Newport University, 1 University Place, Newport News, VA 23606
2 Department of Geography, St. Cloud State University, 359 Stewart Hall, 720 4th Avenue South, St. Cloud, MN 56301-4498

With the advent of increasingly more powerful desktop computers and software developments, a variety of desktop GIS programs are easily accessible to most festival and event managers. This study examines the use of a desktop GIS program for analyzing attendance patterns at the Newport News Department of Parks and Recreation's "Celebration in Lights." The analysis presented here is an example of how festival and event managers can better analyze and plan their events by merely collecting the 5-digit zip code of the home address of persons who attend sponsored programs.

Key words: Desktop applications; GIS programs; Special events planning

Address correspondence to Peter J. Verhoven. Tel: (757) 594-7026; Fax: (757) 594-7803.

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 131-137, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Development of Festivals and Special Events Studies

Sandro Formica

Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 360 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429

This study examined academic research related to festivals and special events (F&SE). An investigation of publications in four leading tourism journals was developed to determine the state of this field. The analysis performed in this study aimed to determine the number of F&SE-related articles, the geographical area where the festival was staged, the location of the educational institution of the authors, the journals that contributed the most to the field, the nature of the articles, the methodology and statistical techniques used, and the functional area under investigation. The results show that F&SE represent a young academic field. This study concludes offering opportunities for future development.

Key words: Festivals and special events; Content analysis; Statistics; Academic journals

Address correspondence to Sandro Formica. Tel: (540) 231-5515; Fax: (540) 231-8313; E-mail: sformica@vt.edu

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 139-146, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Individuals' Reasons for Attending First Night®, a Unique Cultural Event

Deborah L. Kerstetter1 and Pamela H. Mowrer2

1School of Hotel, Restaurant and Recreation Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802

First Night® events differ from most other cultural events in that they are a community-oriented, alcohol-free alternative to traditional New Years Eve revelry. Thus, the objectives of this study were to document: (a) the characteristics of individuals who attend these events, (b) reasons for attendance, and (c) whether reasons for attendance differ based on visitor characteristics. Results indicated that visitors tended to be young, educated, and affluent, and ascribed varying importance to four reason factors: family fun, entertainment, community, and alcohol free. Further, reasons for attendance differed with respect to age and education. Discussion regarding the implications of these findings is included.

Key words: Cultural events; First Night®; Visitor characteristics

Address correspondence to Deborah Kerstetter. Tel: (814) 863-8988; Fax: (814) 863-4257; E-mail: debk@psu.edu

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 147-158, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Comparing Tournament and Nontournament Recreational Billfish Anglers to Examine the Efficacy of Hosting Competitive Billfish Angling Events in Southern Baja, Mexico

Kirk S. Gillis1 and Robert B. Ditton2

1Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261
2Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258

Billfish anglers were segmented in terms of whether or not they participated in billfish angling tournaments to better understand subworld differences in the billfish angler market for the Southern Baja area of Mexico. The two segments were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, trip characteristics, participation frequencies, expenditures, and fish retention practices. This study also examined the relative economic impact of tournament anglers and billfish anglers overall for the area. Tournament and nontournament anglers differed significantly in terms of trip characteristics and participation frequencies, and over a noncontinuous 9-day period, tournament anglers were responsible for 3.5% of the total revenue generated by the region's year-round billfish angling industry. Finally, this study examined the efficacy of hosting billfish tournaments in Southern Baja. In addition to having a substantial economic impact, there was also support for the notion that billfish tournaments have served as a primary tool for promoting and positioning Southern Baja as a center of billfish angling activity.

Key words: Recreational fishing; Tourism events; Southern Baja, Mexico; Fishing tournaments; Billfish

Address correspondence to Kirk S. Gillis. (409) 845-5419; Fax: (409) 845-0871; E-mail: KGILLIS@RPTS.TAMU.EDU

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 171-184, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Waterfront Festivals: A Spectator Analysis of Event Tourism in Three New England Cities

Gerald H. Krausse

Department of Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island, 303 Washburn Hall, Upper College Road, Kingston, RI 02881

Waterfront festivals are a relatively new social phenomenon in our coastal cities, yet only limited research has been conducted on their significance. The purpose of this study is to assess the public's perception of these festivals, their possible impacts on tourism, and how the public feels about waterfront improvements made in the last two decades. On-site interviews were conducted at waterfront festivals in Boston and Fall River, MA, and Providence, RI, in the fall of 1995. Comparative statistics were used in measuring the level of satisfaction, expenditure patterns, reasons for attending, and knowledge about the festival in each city. Exploratory "goodness of fit" statistics were performed to see if certain demographic variables were associated with, or were independent of, the respondent's attitude toward environmental conditions on the waterfront. The results indicate considerable variability as to why people attend waterfront festivals, how they find out about them, how much money they spend, and what they consider to be the most positive and negative attributes of the event. As to the effects on tourism, waterfront celebrations are not a significant catalyst for attracting long-distance visitors. Yet, the festival audience seems to be very positive about the site improvements and new amenities on the waterfront, which have a direct bearing on the success of the event itself.

Key words: Waterfront festivals; Public perception; Tourism; Environment

Address correspondence to Gerald H. Krausse. Tel: (401) 874-4043; Fax: (401) 874-2156.

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 185-205, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Resident Reactions to a Major Tourist Event: The Gold Coast Indy Car Race

Elizabeth Fredline and Bill Faulkner

Centre for Tourism and Hotel Management Research, Griffith University, Gold Coast, PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, QLD 9726, Australia

There has been an increasing tendency for hallmark events to be included as an integral part of tourism destination marketing strategies, with events in effect becoming extensions of the region's inventory of attractions. This trend, coupled with the growing acceptance of sustainability as a guiding principle for managing tourism development, has highlighted the importance of systematically monitoring the social impacts of major events in much the same way as for tourism generally. The study described in this article contributes to the development of such an approach by drawing on past research on the social impacts of tourism to provide a foundation for examining local resident perceptions of the Gold Coast Indy event. It reveals that, although there is overwhelming support for the event among the resident population irrespective of their exposure to its impacts, negative impacts are nevertheless recognized. Thus, although the benefits of the event with regard to tourism promotional effects, community self-esteem, and business and employment opportunities are broadly appreciated, costs of the event associated with noise levels, traffic congestion, overcrowding, and disruption to lifestyle are also acknowledged. This response appears to indicate that the benefits are generally regarded as outweighing the costs. However, in an unambiguous signal to organizations responsible for event/tourism planning, variations in the response of residents also indicate a strong relationship between acceptance of the event and resident perceptions of social justice outcomes and satisfaction with the level of public participation. Residents who regarded the event's costs and benefits as being justly distributed and public participation in its planning as adequate tended to be more positively disposed to the event.

Key words: Community reactions; Hallmark event; Event benefits; Level of satisfaction

Address correspondence to Bill Faulkner. Tel: (07) 5594-8732; Fax: (07) 5594-8507; E-mail: b.faulkner@mailbox.gu.edu.au

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 207-220, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Segmenting Alberta Arts and Festival Consumers: Part 1: Overview of the Arts Consumer

David Grant and Stanley Paliwoda

Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

This article discusses arts consumer segmentation profiles for the province of Alberta, Canada, which were developed to assist various performing and visual arts groups to better understand their consumers and so improve their marketing. Profiles were assembled from data gathered for a national arts consumer profile survey that used interview, telephone and mail techniques, and six research instruments. Data pertaining to Alberta were drawn from the national survey computer database. This provided a breakdown of eight psychographic segments paralleling clusters developed in the previously published national survey, but diverging in significant detail as the focus narrowed.

Key words: Consumer profiles; Arts consumers; Marketing strategies; Canada

Address correspondence to Stanley Paliwoda, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management, Room SH 491, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. Tel: (403) 220-7581; Fax: (403) 282-0095; E-mail: paliwoda@mgmt.ucalgary.ca

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 221-230, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Special Event Accreditation: The Practitioners' Perspective

Cathryn G. Royal and Leo K. Jago

Department of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, Victoria University of Technology, P.O. Box 14428 MCMC, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia

In many industries, accreditation has been introduced as a means of improving the quality and professionalism of the product delivery. The field of special events has become an integral component of the tourism industry in many regions throughout the developed world. As consumers become more sophisticated in their demands for a high-quality offering, there is pressure to ensure that the standard of the events on offer is of an acceptable level. If accreditation is to play a role in achieving improved quality, it is important that special event practitioners are supportive of the concept. This study surveyed a sample of special event practitioners to identify their views of the role that accreditation could play in this sector and whether they would consider becoming accredited. The results of this study suggested that there was substantial ambivalence on the part of practitioners towards accreditation. The study also found that practitioners believed that if accreditation was to be introduced, it should apply to the whole organization not just an individual, and the accreditation process should take into account practical experience, not just academic training.

Key words: Event accreditation; Event practitioners; Special events sector

Address correspondence to Leo K. Jago. Fax: (613) 9248-1064; E-mail: leo.jago@vu.edu.au

Festival Management & Event Tourism, Vol. 5, pp. 231-241, 1998
1065-2701/98 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1998 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Participant Motivation in a Remote Fishing Event

Mike Raybould

School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia

Participants in a 6-day fishing event, held in a remote World Heritage Area in Australia, were surveyed to investigate their demographic profiles, previous attendance, and reasons for attending the event. This article uses factor analysis to identify six motivational dimensions that influenced individuals to attend this annual event. Analysis of variance shows that there are significant differences between some demographic and trip variables and reported visitor motivation. The results of the study indicate that event organizers would do well to emphasize the social and relaxation benefits of the event, and make less of the extrinsic rewards and competitive elements, when promoting the event in future years.

Key words: Participant motivation; Factor analysis; Demographic profile; Remote fishing event

Address correspondence to Mike Raybould. Tel: 61 7 5594 8822; Fax: 61 7 5594 8507; Email: m.raybould@mailbox.gu.edu.au