|ognizant Communication Corporation|
FAILURE & LESSONS LEARNED IN INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 4, 1997
Failure & Lessons Learned in Information Technology Management,
Vol. 1, pp. 219-232, 1997
1088-128X/97 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1997 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Information Society - A Cultural Fallacy?
Janice Burn,1 Robert Davison,2 and Ernest Jordan3
1School of MIS, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A., Australia
2Department of Information Systems, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
3Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Maquarie University, Sydney, Australia
This article reviews research on societal and organizational culture and relates this specifically to their impact on the development of the Information Society. A model of information systems acceptance is proposed and expanded in detail. From this model a number of hypotheses can be drawn in relation to cross-cultural differences in the values associated with information and its usage in organizational contexts. These differences have implications for the development, deployment, and usage of information systems. The model is illustrated with case material obtained during studies in Hong Kong into the adoption and use of Group Support Systems and will act as the framework for a comprehensive cross-cultural research program to be undertaken throughout Australasia.
Key words: Cultural issues; Information systems; Group support systems
Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Janice
Burn, School of MIS, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A., Australia. Tel:
(619) 273 8752; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Cross-Culture Comparison of German and US Strategic Information Systems Planning
Vijay Sethi1 and Albert L. Lederer2
1Division of Strategy and Information Systems, Nanyang Business
School, Singapore 639798
2Decision Sciences and Information Systems, School of Management, Carol M. Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky , Lexington, KY 40506-0034
Strategic information systems planning (SISP) challenges many companies. Hofstede's culture typology provides a foundation for expecting differences in the challenges for companies in different countries. Data from a recent study of SISP in German companies are compared with analogous data from US companies. The findings provide support for the potential impact of culture on the process and output of SISP.
Key words: Culture; Strategic information systems; Cross-cultural factors
Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Vijay Sethi. Tel: 65-7996142; E-mail: email@example.com
The Importance of Organizational Culture Fit: A Technology Implementation Success Story
Michael J. Gallivan
Stern School of Business, New York University, 44 W. 4th Street, ME 9-80, New York, NY 10012
This article analyzes the importance of the fit between organizational culture and prospective technologies. Three approaches to implementation strategy are summarized, which are used to analyze case studies of technology failure and success. The question of why practitioners continue to employ the "technology as a catalyst to change" strategy is raised, despite the repeated failures associated with it. In contrast to this strategy, a case study of InfoCorp is presented here, a firm that did ensure the requisite fit between its organizational culture and the assumptions inherent in the technology. The importance of this technology/culture fit and the importance of following the approach of design for implementability are analyzed to demonstrate their relationship to the successful outcomes. Through a cross-case analysis of the InfoCorp field study with lessons from several technology failures, the article concludes with a caution to managers toa void the optimistic, but naïve, expectations of the "technology as catalyst to change" implementation strategy
Key words: Organizational culture; Implementation; Information
Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Michael J. Gallivan. Tel: (212) 998-0824; Fax: (212) 995-4228; E-mail: MGalliva@stern.nyu.edu
The Problematic Transfer From American Airlines to French Railways: The Role of Global Computerized Reservation Systems in the European Transport Industry
Nathalie N. Mitev
Information Systems Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, United Kingdom
The introduction and implementation of Socrate, a new computerized reservation and distribution system at French Railways proved problematic. Socrate was adapted from Sabre, the system that provided American Airlines with substantial strategic advantage during the deregulation of US air transport in the 1980s. The implementation problems experienced by French Railways cannot be dissociated from the political, cultural, and socioeconomic context of the European transport industry and wider political economy debates. It is shown here that two sets of complex and difficult "translations" are at work in the European rail industry deregulation: one set of cross-cultural translations from the US to Europe, and another one from the air industry to the rail industry. Consequently, the transferability of the US air deregulation model to French Railways was likely to be controversial. This is explored further with respect to intermodal and intramodal competition, the dilemma between competition and cooperation, changes in pricing differentiation and access to transport, yield management techniques, and distribution systems. This in-depth case study illustrates the fact that transporting a technical solution to a different cultural context in order to address strategic objectives assumes that implementing technical solutions is a neutral, rational, and objective exercise and ignores the importance and the complexity of political, economic, social, and cultural differences.
Key words: Cross-cultural issues; Implementation strategies; Reservation systems
Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Nathalie
N. Mitev. Tel: 44 161 745 5434; Fax: 44 161 745 8169; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org