|ognizant Communication Corporation|
International Journal for Human Support Research
(Formerly Life Support and Biosphere Science)
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2
Habitation, Vol. 10, pp. 71-78
1542-9660/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Light-Emitting Diodes as an Illumination Source for Plants: A Review of Research at Kennedy Space Center
Hyeon-Hye Kim,1 Raymond M. Wheeler,1 John C. Sager,1 Neil C. Yorio,2 and Gregory D. Goins3
1NASA Biological Sciences Office, Mail Code: YA-E4-B, Kennedy
Space Center, FL 32899
2Dynamac Corporation, Mail Code: DYN-3, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899
3North Carolina A&T State University, Biology Department, Barnes Hall, 1601 E. Market St., Greensboro, NC 27411
The provision of sufficient light is a fundamental requirement to support long-term plant growth in space. Several types of electric lamps have been tested to provide radiant energy for plants in this regard, including fluorescent, high-pressure sodium, and metal halide lamps. These lamps vary in terms of spectral quality, which can result in differences in plant growth and morphology. Current lighting research for space-based plant culture is focused on innovative lighting technologies that demonstrate high electrical efficiency and reduced mass and volume. Among the lighting technologies considered for space are light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The combination of red and blue LEDs has proven to be an effective lighting source for several crops, yet the appearance of plants under red and blue lighting is purplish gray, making visual assessment of plant health difficult. Additional green light would make the plant leaves appear green and normal, similar to a natural setting under white light, and may also offer psychological benefits for the crew. The addition of 24% green light (500-600 nm) to red and blue LEDs enhanced the growth of lettuce plants compared with plants grown under cool white fluorescent lamps. Coincidentally, these plants grown under additional green light would have the additional aesthetic appeal of a green appearance.
Key words: Advanced life support; Green light; Light-emitting diode (LED); Photosynthesis; Plant lighting
Address correspondence to Hyeon-Hye Kim, 1 NASA Biological Sciences Office, Mail Code: YA-E4-B, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899. Tel: (321) 861-2924; Fax: (321) 861-2925; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Atypical Hematological Response to Combined Calorie Restriction and Chronic Hypoxia in Biosphere 2 Crew: A Possible Link to Latent Features of Hibernation Capacity
Donald E. Paglia,1,2 and Roy L. Walford2 (deceased)
1UCLA Hematology Research Laboratory and the 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, 10833 LeConte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732
Eight humans were isolated for 2 years in Biosphere 2, a sealed airtight habitat with recycled air, food, water, and wastes. A combination of conditions led to selective decline of oxygen (O2) in the internal atmosphere from 21% to 14%, inducing symptoms of high-altitude sickness but with little or no compensatory increase in red cell production. All crew members exhibited significant decreases in both erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) concentrations and P50 [partial pressure of O2 for 50% hemoglobin (Hb) saturation] values, changes opposite those expected in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia. Lower P50 with increased Hb-O2 affinity induced by low 2,3-BPG is a characteristic of hibernating species and could be advantageous in O2-impoverished environments. The mechanisms underlying these changes in the Biosphere 2 crew remain obscure but could be related to low-calorie diet (1750-2100 kcal/day). Because the combination of hypoxia and limited caloric intake is also characteristic of hibernation, this unusual response may represent a cross-adaptation phenomenon in which certain features of hibernation capability are expressed in humans.
Key words: Calorie restriction; Chronic hypoxia; Biochemical adaptation; Erythrocyte organic phosphates; Hibernation
Address correspondence to Donald E. Paglia, 7090 North Highway One, Little River, CA 95456. Tel/Fax: (707) 937-5880; E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Development of a 1-Week Cycle Menu for an Advanced Life Support System (ALSS) Utilizing Practical Biomass Production Data From the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)
Tsuyoshi Masuda,1 Ryuuji Arai,1 Osamu Komatsubara,1 Yasuhiro Tako,1 Emiko Harashima,2 and Keiji Nitta1
1Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental
2Jissen Women's University, Department of Food and Health Sciences
Productivities of 29 crops in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were measured. Rice and soybean showed higher productivities than these given by the Advanced Life Support System Modeling and Analysis Project Baseline Values and Assumption Document (BVAD), but productivities of some other crops, such as potato and sweet potato, were lower. The cultivation data were utilized to develop a 1-week cycle menu for Closed Habitation Experiment. The menu met most of the nutritional requirements. Necessary cultivation area per crew was estimated to be 255 m2. Results from this study can be used to help design the future Advanced Life Support System (ALSS) including the CEEF.
Key words: Nutritional requirement; Crop productivity; Cultivation area; Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF); Advanced Life Support System (ALSS)
Address correspondence to Tsuyoshi Masuda, 1-7 Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita, Aomori, Japan 039-3212. Tel: +81-175-71-0802; Fax: +81-175-71-0800; E-mail: email@example.com
Nanostructured Oxide-Based Selective Gas Sensor Arrays for Chemical Monitoring and Medical Diagnostics in Isolated Environments
Pelagia-Irene (Perena) Gouma
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-2275
MoO3 and MoO3-WO3-based resistive type sensors/arrays have been used for the detection of toxic gaseous compounds important to environmental monitoring and to medical diagnostics. The responses of the sensing elements when exposed to 400 ppm of methanol, 10 ppm of isoprene, and 15 ppm of ammonia at temperatures between 400°C and 500°C have been assessed. A correlation was made between the crystallography of the nanostructured oxide sensing films and their relative gas selectivity to the analytes of interest. Arrays of selective sensing elements are proposed as valuable tools for the survival of humans in isolated environments and for space exploration.
Key words: Selectivity; Sensor arrays; Polymorphic oxides; Environmental monitoring; Medical diagnostics
Address correspondence to Pelagia-Irene (Perena) Gouma, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, 314 Old Engineering Building, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2275. Tel: (631) 632-4537; Fax: (631) 632-8052; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Online Fault Adaptive Control for Efficient Resource Management in Advanced Life Support Systems
Sherif Abdelwahed, Jian Wu, Gautam Biswas, John Ramirez, and Eric-J. Manders
Institute for Software Integrated Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235
This article presents the design and implementation of a controller scheme for efficient resource management in Advanced Life Support Systems. In the proposed approach, a switching hybrid system model is used to represent the dynamics of the system components and their interactions. The operational specifications for the controller are represented by utility functions, and the corresponding resource management problem is formulated as a safety control problem. The controller is designed as a limited-horizon online supervisory controller that performs a limited forward search on the state-space of the system at each time step, and uses the utility functions to decide on the best action. The feasibility and accuracy of the online algorithm can be assessed at design time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme by running a set of experiments on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) subsystem of the Water Recovery System (WRS).
Key words: Switching hybrid system model; Online algorithm; Water Recovery System
Address correspondence to Gautam Biswas, Professor, Computer Science and Computer Engineering, Senior Research Scientist, Institute for Software Integrated Systems (ISIS), Room 250, Featheringill Hall, Nashville, TN 37212. Tel: (615) 343-6204; Fax: (615) 343-6702; E-mail: Biswas@eecsmail.vuse.vanderbilt.edu
Porous Media Matric Potential and Water Content Measurements During Parabolic Flight
Joey H. Norikane,1 Scott B. Jones,2 Susan L. Steinberg,3 Howard G. Levine,4 and Dani Or5
1Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Department, University
of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0276
2Department of Plants, Soils and Biometeorology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-4820
3Universities Space Research Association, Johnson Space Center/NASA, Houston, TX 77058
4NASA Biological Sciences Office, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899
5Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-2037
Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications.
Key words: Heat-pulse soil moisture sensors; KC-135; Microgravity; Tensiometers; Turface
Address correspondence to Joey H. Norikane, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Kentucky, 128 C.E. Barnhart Building, Lexington, KY 40546-0276. Tel: (859) 257-3000, ext. 208; Fax: (859) 257-5671; E-mail: email@example.com