ognizant Communication Corporation

HABITATION
International Journal for Human Support Research
(Formerly Life Support and Biosphere Science)

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 9, NUMBERS 1-2

Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 1-8
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Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Effect of Drying and Size Reduction Pretreatments on Recovery of Inorganic Crop Nutrients From Inedible Wheat Residues

R. F. Strayer, M. P. Alazraki, and J. Judkins

Dynamac Corporation, Controlled Biological Systems, Mail Code DYN-3, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899

Inorganic nutrients can be easily recovered from ALS crop residue solid wastes by aqueous leaching. However, oven-drying and milling pretreatment of these residues has been frequently required to accommodate crop scientists and facility storage limitations. As part of a research study that will compare three different bioreactor technologies for processing these wastes, we realized that different drying and size reduction pretreatments had been utilized for each technology. This article compares the effects of residue pretreatment on recovery of nutrients by leaching. Pretreatments included three drying methods [fresh, oven-dried (70°C overnight), and freeze-dried)] and two size reduction methods [chopped (2 cm length) and milled (2 mm diameter)]. Determination of mass balances (dry weight and ash content of solids) before and after leaching indicated solublization was least for fresh residues (23% dry weight loss and 50% for ash loss) and most for freeze-dried residues (41-47% dry weight loss and nearly 100% for ash loss). Mineral recovery of major elements (NO3, PO4, K, Ca, and Mg) in leachates was poorest for fresh residues. P and K recovery in leachates was best for oven-dried residues, and Ca, Mg, and N recovery best for freeze-dried residues. The differences in recovery for N, P, and K in leachates were minimal between chopping and milling and slightly better for Ca and Mg from milled residues.

Key words: Solid wastes; Crop residues; Advanced life support; Mineral recovery; Nutrient recycling

Address correspondence to Richard F. Strayer, Controlled Biological Systems, Dynamac Corporation, Mail Code Dyn-3, Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899. Tel: (321) 476-4274; Fax: (321) 853-4274; E-mail: richard.strayer-1@ksc.nasa.gov



Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 9-15
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Development of a Pilot System for Converting Sweet Potato Starch Into Glucose Syrup

Valerian C. K. Silayo,1 John Y. Lu,2 and Heshmat A. Aglan2

1Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O BOX 3003 SUA, Morogoro, Tanzania
2Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space, George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088

Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support humans in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column, and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated, and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, deionized, and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization, where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration gave a product with color that resembled the original color of the sweet potatoes. Further work is required to improve the overall system performance.

Key words: Sweet potato; Glucose syrup; Sweetener

Address correspondence to H. A. Aglan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088. Tel: (334) 727-8857; E-mail: aglanh@tuskegee.edu




Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 17-30
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Work Measurement for Estimating Food Preparation Time of a Bioregenerative Diet

Ammar Olabi,1 Jean Hunter,2 Peter Jackson,3 Michele Segal,4 Rupert Spies,5 Carolyn Wang,6 Christina Lau,6 Christopher Ong,6 Conor Alexander,6 Evan Raskob,6 Jennifer Plichta,6 Ohad Zeira,6 Randy Rivera,6 Susan Wang,6 Bill Pottle,6 Calvin Leung,6 Carrie Vicens,6 Christine Tao,6 Craig Beers,6 Grace Fung,6 Jacob Levine,6 Jaeshin Yoo,6 Joanna Jackson,6 Kelly Saikkonen,6 Matthew Zimmerman,6 Megan Cunningham,6 Michele Crum,6 Naquan Ishman,6 Norman Voo,6 Raul Cadena,6 Robert Relinger,6 and Saori Wada6

1Food Science Department, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
2Biological and Environmental Engineering Department, Riley-Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
3School of Operations Research and Industrial Engineering, Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
4Design and Environmental Analysis Department, Martha Van Rensselaer Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
5School of Hotel Administration, Statler Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
6Students in the ABEN/ORIE/HA 499 tutorial class during the Fall 1998-Spring 2000 period, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

Key words: Diet; Food preparation; Space; Time studies; Work measurement

Address correspondence to Ammar Olabi, California Polytechnic State University, Food Science and Nutrition Department, 1 Grand Avenue, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Tel: (805) 756-2997; Fax: (805) 756-1146; E-mail: AOLABI@CALPOLY.EDU




Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 31-39
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Optimized Bioregenerative Space Diet Selection With Crew Choice

Carrie Vicens,1 Carolyn Wang,1 Ammar Olabi,2 Peter Jackson,1 and Jean Hunter3

1School of Operations Research and Industrial Engineering, Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
2Food Science Department, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
3Biological and Environmental Engineering Department, Riley-Robb Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

Previous studies on optimization of crew diets have not accounted for choice. A diet selection model with crew choice was developed. Scenario analyses were conducted to assess the feasibility and cost of certain crew preferences, such as preferences for numerous-desserts, high-salt, and high-acceptability foods. For comparison purposes, a no-choice and a random-choice scenario were considered. The model was found to be feasible in terms of food variety and overall costs. The numerous-desserts, high-acceptability, and random-choice scenarios all resulted in feasible solutions costing between 13.2 and 17.3 kg ESM/person-day. Only the high-sodium scenario yielded an infeasible solution. This occurred when the foods highest in salt content were selected for the crew-choice portion of the diet. This infeasibility can be avoided by limiting the total sodium content in the crew-choice portion of the diet. Cost savings were found by reducing food variety in scenarios where the preference bias strongly affected nutritional content.

Key words: Diet; Choice; Space; Optimization; Bioregenerative

Address correspondence to Ammar Olabi, Food Science and Nutrition Department, California Polytechnic State University, 1 Grand Avenue, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Tel: (805) 756-2997; Fax: (805) 756-1146; E-mail: AOLABI@CALPOLY.EDU




Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 41-46
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Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Differential Expression of HSP60 and HSP70 Associated With Cytotoxicity Under Microgravity Conditions

Tie Hong,1 Guang-Bi Jin,2 Shigefumi Cho,1 Takao Kobayashi,1 Fumiko Yasuno,3 Yoshihiko Aikawa,3 and Jong-Chol Cyong1

1Department of Bioregulatory Function, and 2Department of Geriatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyou-Ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
3Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka, Bunkyou-ku, Tokyo 112-0012, Japan

It is known that space flight affects T lymphocyte function in both humans and animals, but there have been no papers dealing with the effect of microgravity conditions for a very short time (i.e., only 10 s). In the present study, the effect of very short time microgravity on the cytotoxicity and surface markers of human activated T lymphocytes, in vitro, was investigated using the drop-shaft type of microgravity experiment system. The levels of heat shock protein 60 and 70 (hsp60 and hsp70) were also quantified in cells exposed to these microgravity conditions. The results showed that not only the cytotoxicity but also the hsp60 levels were remarkably reduced under these conditions.

Key words: Microgravity; Cytotoxicity; Stress protein; Heat shock protein 60 (hsp60); Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70)

Address correspondence to Shigefumi Cho, Department of Bioregulatory Function, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyou-Ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan. Tel: 81-03-3815-5411, ext. 33196; Fax: 81-03-3818-4754; E-mail: cho-tky@umin.ac.jp




Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 47-57
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Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Removal of Sodium Chloride From Human Urine Via Batch Recirculation Electrodialysis at Constant Applied Voltage

Nilda E. Gordils-Striker and Guillermo Colón

University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, Department of Chemical Engineering, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94%) of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage:
-r = 2.0 x 104E3.8. With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

Key words: Advanced live support systems (ALSS); Urine; Electrodialysis; Membranes; Fouling; Impedance spectroscopy

Address correspondence to Guillermo Colón, Ph.D., University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 9046, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9046. Tel: (787) 832-4040, x-3727; Fax: (787) 265-3818 or (787) 834-3655; E-mail: gu_colon@rumac.upr.clu.edu




Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 59-65
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Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Development of a Root Feeding System Based on a Fiber Ion-Exchange Substrate For Space Plant Growth Chamber "Vitacycle"

Yu. A. Berkovich,1 N. M. Krivobok,1 S. M. Krivobok,1 V. V. Matusevich,2 and V. S. Soldatov2

1Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Physical/Organic Chemistry, Minsk, Belarus

Selecting a plant root nutrient delivery system is one of the key aspects of designing root modules for space plant growth chambers. This article examines a number of the nutrient delivery systems and shows the most suitable technique for providing nutrients to roots in microgravity, which to date are ion-exchange artificial soils. In addition, this article characterizes the ion composition and hydrophysical parameters of a new Russian artificial ion-charged fiber substrate, BIONA-V3. The BIONA-V3 substrate is comprised of ion-exchange resin fibers. The experimental data concerning the effects of anionic and cationic components on plant biomass are presented. Preliminary experiments with BIONA-V3 showed that 1 kg of dry BIONA-V3 produces up to 2.4 kg (fresh mass) of cabbage leaf or 180 g of dry plant mass per 1 dm3 of the substrate. Therefore, the root zone volume can be as small as 120 cm3 per plant. Further optimizing the nutrient composition of the resin fibers can increase space plant growth chamber productivity.

Key words: Space plant growth chamber; Root module; Artificial soil; Productivity potential of substrate

Address correspondence to Yu. A. Berkovich, Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia. Tel: 7 095 195 2363 (Russia); Tel: (321) 853-3125 (USA); Fax: 7 095 195 2253 (Russia); E-mail: phytocycle@imbp.ru




Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 67-78
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Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Carbon Dioxide Scrubbing Capabilities of Two New Nonpowered Technologies

William Norfleet and Wayne Horn

Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Box 900, Groton, CT 06349-5900

Current guidance for survivors aboard a disabled submarine (DISSUB) recommends the use of the "stir-and-fan" method of carbon dioxide (CO2) scrubbing in which the contents of canisters of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) are dispersed onto horizontal surfaces. This technique is objectionable because it releases large quantities of fine, caustic LiOH dust and it utilizes LiOH inefficiently. This report presents the results of laboratory studies of the CO2 scrubbing capabilities of two new products that might improve on "stir-and-fan": the Battelle Curtain (BC) and the Micropore Reactive Plastic Curtain (RPC). Experiments took place within a sealed hyperbaric chamber. CO2 was added to the chamber at a known mass flow that reproduced what might be encountered in a "worst-case" DISSUB scenario. Natural convection alone circulated gas within the chamber. The mass of BCs or RPCs necessary to limit CO2 to 3% for about 2 days was determined. The total scrubbing capacity (mass of CO2 scrubbed per unit mass of agent) of the BC was 0.756 ± 0.012 (mean ± SD), and the comparable value for the RPC was 0.808 ± 0.007. Both products provided a scrubbing capacity that is close to the stoichiometric limit of the reaction (0.919). Neither product released sufficient caustic dust to prevent handling by a trained individual wearing no personal protective equipment.

Key words: Submarine; Carbon dioxide; Scrubbing; Lithium hydroxide; Battelle Curtain; Micropore Reactive Plastic

Address correspondence to William Norfleet, M.D., 106 Oswegatchie Hills Road, Niantic, CT 06357. Tel: (860) 739-3848; E-mail: andreanorfleet@aol.com




Habitation, Vol. 9, pp. 79-88
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Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Microgravity Heat Pump for Space Station Thermal Management

R. E. Domitrovic,1 F. C. Chen,2 V. C. Mei,2 and A. L. Spezia III3

1Systems Development Institute, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
2Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN
3Thermal Sciences Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

A highly efficient recuperative vapor compression heat pump was developed and tested for its ability to operate independent of orientation with respect to gravity while maximizing temperature lift. The objective of such a heat pump is to increase the temperature of, and thus reduce the size of, the radiative heat rejection panels on spacecrafts such as the International Space Station. Heat pump operation under microgravity was approximated by gravitational-independent experiments. Test evaluations include functionality, efficiency, and temperature lift. Commercially available components were used to minimize costs of new hardware development. Testing was completed on two heat pump design iterations - LBU-I and LBU-II - for a variety of operating conditions under the variation of several system parameters, including: orientation, evaporator water inlet temperature (EWIT), condenser water inlet temperature (CWIT), and compressor speed. The LBU-I system employed an AC motor, belt-driven scroll compressor, and tube-in-tube heat exchangers. The LBU-II system used a direct-drive AC motor/compressor assembly and plate heat exchangers. The LBU-II system in general outperformed the LBU-I system on all accounts. Results are presented for all systems, showing particular attention to those states that perform with a COP of 4.5 ± 10% and can maintain a temperature lift of 55°F (30.6°C) ± 10%. A calculation of potential radiator area reduction shows that points with maximum temperature lift give the greatest potential for reduction, and that area reduction is a function of heat pump efficiency and a stronger function of temperature lift.

Key words: Microgravity; Heat pump; Heat rejection; International Space Station (ISS); Thermal management; Vapor compression

Address correspondence to Fang C. Chen, Program Manager, Thermal Engineering, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070. Tel: (865) 574-0712; Fax: (865) 574-5227; E-mail: chenfc@ornl.gov