|ognizant Communication Corporation|
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & TOURISM
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1
Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 6, pp. 3-11
1098-3058/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Electronic Travel Markets: Elusive Effects on Consumers' Search Behavior
Anssi Öörni1 and Stefan Klein2
1Department of Information Systems, Helsinki School of Economics,
Runeberginkatu 14-16, 00100 Helsinki, Finland
2Department of Management Information Systems, University College Dublin, Ireland
This article examines the effect of Internet-based electronic markets on consumer search in the travel and tourism industry. Two experiments provide the empirical basis for the article. We address the question of whether consumer search in electronic markets is different from search in conventional markets. In this work we refine the efficiency of consumer search and its effects with the following questions: 1) Is consumer search in electronic markets more productive? 2) Is consumer search in electronic markets more efficient? Based on our analyses, we present propositions about major obstacles that have prevented current travel markets from reaching the hypothesized high efficiency related to electronic markets. The article ends with a critical outlook of the market development. Are there ways to overcome some of the observed obstacles and are there indications that the industry has understood the problems and is reacting?
Key words: Electronic travel markets; Consumer search; Search costs
Address correspondence to Anssi Öörni, Department of Information Systems, Helsinki School of Economics, Runeberginkatu 14-16, 00100 Helsinki, Finland. Tel: +358-9-43138279; Fax: +358-9-43138700; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Deconstructing Destination Image in the Information Age
Robert Govers1 and Frank M. Go2
1Emirates Academy of Hospitality Management, PO Box 11416,
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
2Rotterdam School of Management, Centre for Tourism Management, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
The substantial increases in the volume of tourist information available as a consequence of rapid technological change, globalization, and the blurring boundaries of competition are the main reasons that both consumers and destinations face complexity. These forces combined have caused a process that is "reengineering" the tourism industry. Particularly destination image, influenced by the proliferation of communicated destination identities, as driven by the online revolution, holds many innovation promises in terms of destination marketing and positioning. As it is difficult for tourists to form a clear image of a destination without the actual experience, the multimedia interactive nature of the Web can add a whole new dimension to destination marketing. But how are those image attributes that have the largest impact on consumer perception and therefore destination choice identified and measured? Through empirical data this article shows that the present multiattribute destination image research is inadequate in predicting destination choice behavior. A subsequent discussion of the results asserts that the deconstruction of traditional destination image theory is unavoidable. In its place, it is concluded, emerges a new information technology-based destination image measurement paradigm.
Key words: Destination marketing online; Destination marketing offline; Reengineering; Deconstructing destination image; Consumer research
Address correspondence to Robert Govers, Emirates Academy of Hospitality Management, PO Box 11416, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. E-mail: Robert.Govers@emiratesacademy.edu
Using Geographical Information Systems to Browse Touristic Information
Nieves R. Brisaboa, Antonio Fariña, Miguel R. Luaces, José R. Paramá, Miguel R. Penabad, Ángeles S. Places, and José R. Viqueira
Departamento de Computación, Universidade da Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, 15071 A Coruña, Spain
The current expansion of the Internet makes it one of the most popular places to publish and search for almost any kind of information. In particular, touristic information--not only about tours or information about resources, places, museums, or monuments, but also cultural tourism--has gained much attention in the last years. We propose the use of geographical information systems (GIS) technology that provides interfaces capable of displaying interactive maps with information associated to the elements present in such maps. In this article, we present a Web interface to access touristic information about Galicia (Spain) using GIS technology to easily find any touristic or cultural information. This interface is enclosed in the Galician Virtual Library (http://bvg.udc.es) Web site.
Key words: Internet; Tourism; Cultural heritage; Web interfaces; Geographical information systems (GIS)
Address correspondence to Miguel Rodríguez Penabad, Facultade de Informática, Departamento de Computación, Universidade da Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, 15071 A Coruña, Spain. Tel: +34 981 167000, ext. 1254; Fax: +34 981 167160; E-mail address: email@example.com
Information Technology Competencies in Tourism Management Education
Institute for Tourism Studies (IFT), Colina de Mong Ha, Macao, SAR, China
This article focuses on the types of generic information technology (IT) competencies that are essential in the tourism industry from the perspective of the IT syllabus taught at the Institute for Tourism Studies (IFT) in Macao. The significance of IT in the tourism sector is discussed wherein factors attributable to the gap between what is taught and what ought to be taught in a tourism business management program are identified. Then the nature of the IT syllabus in tourism management education is brought into focus whereby IT applications are differentiated in accordance with their operational and strategic utility. The usage of these applications in a wide spectrum of disciplines in tourism business management studies as well as in professional management practices is discussed, on the basis of which "career critical" applications are identified from the context of the development of managerial competencies in students majoring in tourism business management.
Key words: IT syllabus; Tourism management education; Managerial competencies; Career critical applications
Address correspondence to Sanjay Nadkarni, Institute for Tourism Studies (IFT), Colina de Mong Ha, Macao, SAR, China. Tel: +853-5983171; Fax: +853-519058; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
e-Heritage in the Globalizing Society: Enabling Cross-Cultural Engagement Through ICT
Frank M. Go,1 Ronald M. Lee,2 and Antonio P. Russo3
1Department of Marketing Management, Faculty of Business
Administration, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Postbox 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam,
2College of Business, Florida International University, 11200 S.W. 8 Street, Miami, FL 33199
3EURICUR, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Postbox 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands
This article advocates that the traditional approach pursued by the tourist business is in need of fundamental revision. Experience has shown that economic development activities like tourism, when they are driven by outsiders (notably transnational corporations), are likely to deplete the cultural and social capital that is necessary for sustainable community economic development. It is assumed instead that to the extent that insiders are empowered and enabled to bridge cross-cultural differences, tourism development strategies may contribute towards global sustainability. Establishing cultural empathy between players in the travel industry is crucial in this process. However, this vision needs to be grounded in a sound business model for the heritage enterprise. To this aim, local narratives should be translated into compelling e-content to be diffused globally.
Key words: Sustainable tourism; Restructuring; Heritage enterprise; Incubator
Address correspondence to Dr. Antonio P. Russo, EURICUR, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Postbox 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Tel: +31 10 4081578; Fax:+31 10 4089153; E-mail: email@example.com
Rosterbuilder: An Architecture for Airline Rostering
Karl Doerner,1 Gabriele Kotsis,2 and Christine Strauss1
1University of Vienna, Department of Business Studies, Brünner
Strasse 72, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2Telecooperation Department, University of Linz, Altenberger Strasse 69, 4040 Linz, Austria
Airlines rely on crew scheduling tools to resolve crew utilization and cost issues and to address service quality and employee satisfaction issues. This article presents the architecture for a reference framework for flexible rostering at airlines and illustrates its integration into modern computing and communication environments. The analysis focuses on functional requirements applicable to most airlines using a rostering concept and specifies those requirements in use case diagrams that follow the UML formalism. Reflecting the need for flexibility, scalability, and ubiquitous access to information, this article proposes a component-based system architecture that can easily be adapted to end users' needs.
Key words: Airline rostering; Requirements elicitation; Requirements engineering; Software architecture; UML-based modeling
Address correspondence to Christine Strauss, University of Vienna,
Department of Business Studies, Brünner Strasse 72, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
Tel: ++431427738112; Fax; ++431427738115; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org