|ognizant Communication Corporation|
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & TOURISM
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2
Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 6, pp. 91-97
1098-3058/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
A Framework for Online Sales Negotiations of Hospitality and Tourism Services
Stephen W. Litvin and John C. Crotts
School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC
E-Commerce is having a profound impact on the traditional modes of selling hospitality and tourism services. This article provides an overview of three negotiation models (state your price buying, electronic request for proposals, and bargaining) that have been used by firms leading the industry's e-commerce revolution. In addition, the article considers the possibility of integrative negotiations in such transactions, the allocation of power in e-negotiations, and provides suggestions for sales managers considering application of the new media as a sales channel.
Key words: E-commerce; Negotiations; Hospitality sales; Tourism
Address correspondence to Stephen W. Litvin, School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424. Tel: (843) 953-7317; Fax: (843) 953-5697; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Five-Star Treatment? E-Mail Customer Service by International Luxury Hotels
Roland Schegg,1 Jamie Murphy,2 and Richard Leuenberger1
1Lausanne Institute for Hospitality Research (LIHR), Ecole
hôtelière de Lausanne (EHL), Switzerland
2University of Western Australia, Department of Information Management and Marketing, Western Australia
This research used a typical e-mail query to investigate customer service by 491 properties from 13 international hotel chains. These five-star hotels had difficulty providing prompt, accurate, and timely e-mail responses to their customers. The results suggest significant differences in e-mail customer service, based on hotel location and the size of the hotel chain. The poor responsiveness and quality by many hotels illustrate that better e-mail policies and training would give hotels an immediate competitive advantage via improved e-mail customer service. The article closes with practical suggestions to improve e-mail customer service and future research avenues for academics.
Key words: Luxury international hotels; E-mail; Internet; eService; Customer service
Address correspondence to Roland Schegg, Lausanne Institute for Hospitality Research (LIHR), Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne (EHL), Switzerland. Tel: 0041 21 785 13 24; Fax: 0041 21 785 13 25; E-mail: email@example.com
The Importance of Risk-Reducing Value-Added Services in Online Environments: An Exploratory Study on Various Segments of Leisure Tourism
Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Breiviksveien 40, 5045 Bergen, Norway
Few customers buy tourism products online. The reason for this may be a lack of risk-reducing, value-added services online. Thus, access to risk-reducing value-added services is supposed to increase online purchase of tourism products. In this article it is proposed that the importance of access to risk-reducing value-added services will vary across customer segments. Customers are divided into segments based on 1) Internet experience, 2) experience with tourism products, 3) search mode, 4) product complexity, and 5) perceived level of risk associated with purchasing tourism products. Perceived risk is found to have an effect on the importance of access to 13 of 17 value-added services. The other segment variables are found to have significant effects on fewer value-added services.
Key words: Value-added services; Risk reduction; Customer segments
Address correspondence to Herbjørn Nysveen, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Breiviksveien 40, 5045 Bergen, Norway. Tel: +47 55 95 95 37; Fax: +47 55 95 95 40; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Destination Marketing Organizations' Web Site Users and Nonusers: A Comparison of Actual Visits and Revisit Intentions
Siu-Ian (Amy) So and Alastair M. Morrison
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Stone Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059
Destination marketing organizations (DMOs) use many different approaches for promoting their areas. With the growing popularity of the Internet, it is important for DMOs to understand the travel behaviors of Web site users versus nonusers. The purpose of this research study was to compare those who did and those who did not consult specific DMO Web sites in searching for travel information. DMO Web site users and nonusers were compared on three variables: actual visits to the subject destinations, intentions to visit, and demographics. In addition, the repeat travel patterns and number of previous visits of the two groups were contrasted. Several significant differences were found between the two groups. A significantly higher proportion of those who visited the DMO Web sites actually went to the destinations, and they also had a higher intention rate to return for future trips. Additionally, there were significant differences in the demographic characteristics of DMO Web site users and nonusers. This research study could serve as a potential foundation for further qualitative and quantitative studies on destination marketing.
Key words: Destination marketing organization (DMO); Internet; Web; Tourism; Marketing
Address correspondence to Alastair Morrison, 111A Stone Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059. Tel: (765) 469-1168; Fax: (765) 494-0327; E-mail: email@example.com
Building Customer Value in the Hospitality Industry: Towards the Definition of a Customer-Centric Information System
CISET (International Center of Studies on the Tourist Economy), Ca' Foscari University, Venice, Italy
Increasing occupancy rates and revenue by improving customer experience is the aim of modern hospitality organizations. To achieve these results, hotel managers need to have a deep knowledge of customers' needs, behavior, and preferences and be aware of the ways in which the services delivered create value for the customers and then stimulate their retention and loyalty. In this article a methodological framework to analyze the guest-hotel relationship and to profile hotel guests is discussed, focusing on the process of designing a customer information system and particularly the guest information matrix on which the system database will be built.
Key words: Hospitality; Customer loyalty; Customer relationship management; Customer information system; Guest information matrix
Address correspondence to Valeria Minghetti, CISET, Ca' Foscari University, Venice, Villa Mocenigo-Riviera S. Pietro, 83, 30030 Oriago di Mira (Venice), Italy. Tel: +39-041-2346531; Fax +39-041-5630620; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org