|ognizant Communication Corporation|
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & TOURISM
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2
Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 7, pp. 61-72
1098-3058/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Using Cinematic Techniques on Mobile Devices for Cultural Tourism
Ivana Alfaro, Marianna Nardon, Fabio Pianesi, Oliviero Stock, and Massimo Zancanaro
ITC-irst, 38050 Povo, Trento, Italy
This article introduces the idea of enhancing the audio presentation of a multimedia museum guide by using the PDA screen to travel throughout a fresco and identify the various details in it. During the presentation, a sequence of pictures is synchronized with the audio commentary and the transitions among the pictures are planned according to cinematic techniques. The theoretical background is presented, discussing the language of cinematography and the Rhetorical Structure Theory to analyze dependency relationships inside a text. In building the video clips, a set of strategies similar to those used in documentaries were employed. Two broad classes of strategies have been identified. The first class encompasses constraints, imposed by the grammar of cinematography, while the second deals with conventions normally used in guiding camera movements in the production of documentaries. The results of a user study are also presented and discussed.
Key words: Multimedia museum guides; Cinematography; Interaction on mobile devices; Location awareness
Address correspondence to Ivana Alfaro, ITC-irst, 38050 Povo, Trento, Italy. Tel: +39 0461-314596; Fax: +39 0461-314501; E-mail: Alfaro@itc.it
Projected Destination Image Online: Website Content Analysis of Pictures and Text
Robert Govers1 and Frank M. Go2
1Flemish Center for Tourism Policy Studies, University of
Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium
2Centre for Tourism Management, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, The Netherlands
This study analyzes how destination identity is projected through the use of photographic imagery and narratives in an online environment in the context of marketing a fast growing tourist destination such as Dubai. Twenty Dubai-based websites, covering various sectors of the industry, were content analyzed in terms of the photographic material and textual representations presented. Results confirm that there are, as expected, considerable discrepancies in the way the private and public players project Dubai's identity. Private sector organizations, in particular hospitality and transport, are product oriented and projected images relate primarily to the specific facilities and tourist activities on offer. In contrast, the destination marketing organization focuses on the projection of cultural identity and heritage.
Key words: Destination image; Identity and culture; Content analysis; Online marketing
Address correspondence to Robert Govers, Flemish Center for Tourism Policy Studies, University of Leuven, Belgium, W. de Croylaan 42, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium. Tel: +32 (0)16 322 794; Fax: +32 (0)2 700 4045; E-mail: RGovers@geo.kuleuven.ac.be
The Internet and the Occidental Tourist: An Analysis of Taiwan's Tourism Websites From the Perspective of Western Tourists
Andrew. P. Davidson1 and Yingmiao Yu2
1School of Sociology & Anthropology, University of New
South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2Department of Tourism, Providence University, Taichun, Taiwan
The objective of this study was to investigate what the Internet offers tourists, but from the perspective of the tourist. This study analyzes a wide variety of tourism websites "branding" Taiwan as a place of tourism destination. A total of 36 websites was examined, first through detailed content analysis and then through website evaluation by Western tourists in Taiwan. As Taiwan is attempting to expand its image as a destination image in Western countries, all analyzed websites have English language capabilities. Our findings suggest that overall there remains a gap between the potential and the practical application of the Internet in organizing travel and obtaining information. The Internet is still emerging as a useful point of embarkation for the tourists.
Key words: Taiwan; Tourism; Tourists; eTourism; Internet site analysis
Address correspondence to Andrew P. Davidson, School of Sociology & Anthropology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel: (61 2) 9385 2401; Fax: (61 2) 9385 1824; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An Analysis of Two Search Engine Interface Metaphors for Trip Planning
Zheng Xiang and Daniel R. Fesenmaier
National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122
On travel-related websites interface metaphors can help travelers plan their trips and make the trip planning process more entertaining and engaging. This study first conceptualizes interface metaphors on travel-related websites by providing a taxonomic analysis based on their functional roles. It then examines the extent to which interface metaphors influence users' perceptions of website usability and their overall experiences when using search engines for planning a trip through an online test. Findings show that interface metaphors significantly affect users' perceptions of system usability and their overall experience with a website. Last, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Key words: Interface metaphor; Search engines; Trip planning
Address correspondence to Daniel R. Fesenmaier, National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, 316 Vivacqua Hall, 1700 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. Tel: 1-215-204-5612; Fax: 1-215-204-1455; E-mail: email@example.com
The Importance of Value-Added Services to Support the Customer Search and Purchase Process on Travel Websites
ETOUR, Mid Sweden University, 831 25, Östersund, Sweden
This article explores one potential reason for the online tourism market's slower than expected growth rate. It investigates to what extent value-added services provided by websites for tour operators and travel agencies are actually perceived as important by the customer in the search and purchase process. An adapted version of a consumer decision process model is used and the results are based on a Web survey. The results show that most value-added services are perceived to be most important in the search and/or purchase phase and that no value-added services are perceived to be most important in the postconsumption phase. Based on this it is suggested that travel websites should try and develop more value-added services aimed at supporting the customer in the postconsumption phase in order to build strong customer relationships and loyalty, which may lead to continuous buying behavior.
Key words: Search and purchase process; Value-added services; Customer relationships; Travel websites
Address correspondence to Maria Lexhagen, ETOUR, Mid Sweden University, 831 Östersund, Sweden. Tel: +46 63 19 58 39; Fax: +46 63 19 58 10; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org