|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 3, NUMBERS 3/4, 1999
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 173-184, 1999
1088-4157/00 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Sharing the Spirit? Sociospatial Polarization and Expressed Enthusiasm for the Olympic Games
Gordon Waitt and Philippe Furrer
University of Wollongong, School of Geosciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522 Australia
This article seeks to contribute to the literature that assesses the local outcomes of hosting hallmark events by examining the expressed levels of enthusiasm for the year 2000 Olympic Games within Sydney. We report on the results of a telephone survey of 658 Sydney residents conducted in February 1998 designed to measure enthusiasm for the 2000 Olympic Games. As of February 1998, it appeared that enthusiasm for the 2000 Olympics remained strong in Sydney, thereby providing support to the views of those who regard hallmark events as a psychological mechanism to assist residents to feel a sense of pride in their city and nation. However, higher levels of enthusiasm were recorded in the lower socioeconomic status suburbs of Western Sydney than in the higher status suburbs of the North Shore. These differences were not statistically differentiated by economic indicators (income, occupation, and education levels) but were significant by association with social variables such as country of birth, age, and marital and family status. Several implications of these results are considered within the literature debating the outcome of hosting hallmark events.
Key words: Hallmark events; Enthusiasm; Sociospatial polarization; Olympic Games
Address correspondence to Gordon Waitt. Tel: 0242 213 684; E-mail: email@example.com
Olympic Locations and Legacies: A Study in Geography and Tourism
Stephen Essex and Brian Chalkley
Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, Devon, UK
The Olympic Games can provide major benefits for host cities, particularly in terms of international profile, increased visitor numbers, and improvements to the urban infrastructure and environment. This article outlines the selection procedures for choosing host cities and reviews the resulting international geography and locational patterns of the Summer Olympics across the period of the modern Olympiad. It identifies and discusses the bias towards Europe and North America. The article also examines the microgeography of the Olympics in terms of their urban impacts. The discussion identifies a range of infrastructural and environmental changes stimulated by hosting the Games and considers the relevance of these Olympic legacies for tourism in the longer term.
Key words: Olympic Games; Geographical patterns; Urban impacts; Olympic legacies
Address correspondence to Dr. Stephen Essex. Tel: 01752-233080; Fax: 01752-233054; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fire and Festival: Authenticity and Visitor Motivation at an Australian Folk Festival
Mike Raybould, Justine Digance, and Caroline Mccullough
School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, QLD 9726, Australia
This article describes research conducted to identify visitor motives for attending the Woodford Folk Festival on Queensland's Sunshine Coast, one of Australia's largest and most successful folk music festivals. Visitors surveyed at the Festival responded to 21 statements relating to their reasons for attendance and these were reduced to five dimensions using factor analysis. Overall, the desire to experience a unique and authentic festival was the most highly ranked dimension by the visitors surveyed. Motivational statements relating to escape from the normal environment and the need to seek social stimulation were also ranked highly by the majority of visitors. People seek leisure experiences such as attending a festival for a variety of reasons, and a better understanding of these reasons can help event managers to develop their product in ways that satisfy these needs.
Key words: Special events; Festivals; Folk festivals; Visitor motivation
Address correspondence to Mike Raybould. E-mail: M.Raybould@mailbox.gu.edu.au
The Presence of a Mega-Event: Effects on Destination Image and Product-Country Images
Lena L. Mossberg and Annika Hallberg
School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, PO Box 610, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
It has been frequently claimed in the literature as well as by interested parties and event organizers that the main impact of mega-events on tourism comes from the contribution they make to awareness of, and interest in, the host destination within international markets. The aim of this study was to find out whether the presence of a mega-event has any effects on foreigners' images of (1) the destination and (2) the products originating from the host country and city. Image objects at various levels from different theoretical frameworks are summarized and synthesized. A conceptual model of effects of the presence of a mega-event on foreigners' images is offered. Results from an empirical study based on the model show no evidence of image effects. These findings raise some questions about the role of events in destination image enhancement.
Key words: Mega-events; Destination image; Image effects; Product-country images
Address correspondence to Dr. Lena Larsson Mossberg. Tel. (+46) 31 773 1539; Fax: (+46) 31 773 4652; E-mail: Lena.Larsson-Mossberg@handels.gu.se
Leveraging Tourism Benefits From the Sydney 2000 Olympics
Bill Faulkner and Carmen Tideswell
Centre for Tourism & Hotel Management Research, Faculty of Commerce and Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia
This article aims to use the Sydney 2000 Olympics as a case study for reviewing the range of opportunities that exist for leveraging tourism benefits from major events of this magnitude. The method used to identify these opportunities was based on a series of industry workshops throughout Australia and a follow-up Delphi survey. The examination of the Sydney 2000 Olympics case has revealed that, beyond the visitors the event will attract in its own right, the tourism industry in Sydney and Australia more generally has the potential to benefit from a range of effects. These include longer term promotional spin-offs, pre-Games itineraries, a stimulus to the conventions and incentives markets, diversion market reactions, and infrastructure improvements.
Key words: Tourism forecasting; Olympic Games; Sydney 2000; Delphi method; Destination promotion; Leveraging strategies
Address correspondence to Dr. Bill Faulkner. Tel: 61-(0)7-55948732; Fax: 61-(0)7-55948507; E-mail: B.Faulkner@mailbox.gu.edu.au
Determining Key Success Criteria for Attracting Hallmark Sporting Events
Lynley Ingerson and Hans M. Westerbeek
Deakin University, Sport Management Program, Faculty of Business & Law, Bowater School of Management and Marketing, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, 3125, Melbourne, Australia
What role does the city play in attracting hallmark sporting events and what benefits does the city offer the event owners to warrant that city's selection to stage the event? In particular, consideration needs to be taken with regard to events that undergo a bidding process and must meet particular criteria in order to be chosen as the host city for a hallmark event. This exploratory, qualitative study identified criteria, or key success factors (KSFs), in the process of attracting a hallmark sporting event to a city. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with six key bid organizers involved in the bid process for the Olympic Games bids of 1996 (Melbourne), 2000 (Sydney), 2008 (Osaka); Commonwealth Games bids of 1994 (Windsor), 1998 (Kuala Lumpur), 2006 (Melbourne); Canada Summer Games 2001 (Windsor); Bledisloe Cup 1997 and 1998 (Melbourne); World Sailing Championships 1999 (Melbourne); World Cup Qualifying Round 1997 (Melbourne); and the Presidents Cup 1998 (Melbourne). Given the exploratory nature of the research, a combination of convenience sampling (of readily available subjects) and purposive sampling technique was applied as these individuals had specialized knowledge and expertise that were representative of the population. One can argue that the bid process finishes with the announcement of the winning host city. However, this article proposes that the bid is cyclical, a continuous process throughout the event that becomes the starting point for future bids. Experienced personnel such as those in this study had already been involved with a bid process and become a valuable resource for future bid committees. Eventually, the research delivered a range of primary and secondary criteria deemed critically important by experienced bid committee members. These criteria can serve as a basis for a quantitative follow-up study.
Key words: Hallmark sporting events; Key success criteria; Bidding process;
Address correspondence to Hans M. Westerbeek. Tel: (03) 9244 6167;
Fax: (03) 9251 7083; E-mail: email@example.com