|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1, 2000
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 4, pp. 1-6, 2000
1088-4157/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Heidi De Haas and Judith Cukier
Tourism Studies, Geography Department, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton
Small-scale tourism has been promoted as a sustainable type of tourism, able to protect the environment and maintain the natural and/or traditional characteristics of the destination. Ecotourism is the term often used to describe environmentally friendly tourism operations, but it is not always sustainable. In some cases the term ecotourism is used broadly to describe tourism in natural areas but does not necessarily adhere to criteria crucial to sustainability, such as local involvement in the tourism operations and planning, and economic viability. This article presents preliminary analysis of research conducted in Niue as part of the first author's Master's thesis on ecotourism sustainability in Niue. Niue is a small raised coral island in Polynesia, has a population slightly over 2000 (Statistics Immigration Unit 1991) and is characterized by unique natural features. The limitation of air transport reduces the number of tourists who travel to the island. Niue's tourism is classified as small scale. The article will discuss the economic, environmental, and sociocultural changes or impacts that have occurred since tourism became an integral part of the island's industry.
Key words: Small-scale tourism; Sustainability; Niue
Address correspondence to Judith Cukier, Ph.D., at her current address: Assistant Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Tel: (519) 885-1211, ext. 5490; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism in Antarctica: A Unique Undertaking in Development and International Environmental Management
Tourism Programme, University of Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
This article critically assesses the unique circumstances surrounding the development and management of tourism in Antarctica over the past four decades. It places tourism there in its exceptional physical, geographical, historical, political, economic, and legal contexts before discussing appropriate definitions of Antarctic tourism and reviewing the three principal categories of tourist activity: sea-borne, overflight and air-borne/land-based/adventure. Then follows an analysis of the environmental aspects: scientific research versus tourism; the fortunate conjunction of the beginnings of Antarctic tourism with the continent's "internationalization"; the evolution of the Antarctic Treaty into a predominantly environmental regime encompassing tourism; and the environmentally responsible approach taken by Antarctic tourism operators. The conclusions reached are that, first, notwithstanding some deeply held concerns, in the absence of irrefutable evidence to the contrary, about possible environmental damage by tourist activity, nowhere else in the world have tourism development and operations been subject to such stringent codes of practice. Second, the fundamental objectives of concerned governments and tour operators to prevent adverse environmental impacts have uniquely coalesced in the Antarctic. The Antarctic Treaty system represents a credible and formidable deterrent to environmental violations and infringements; and all this bodes well for the further development of Antarctic tourism along environmentally responsible and ecologically sustainable lines.
Key words: Antarctica; Geopolitical setting; Tourism development; Environmental impact; Visitor management; Ecologically sustainable tourism; Internationalization; Antarctic Treaty system
Address correspondence to Jeffrey Benson, 29 Parker Street, Curtin ACT 2605, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com
The Fiji Islands: The One Truly Relaxing Tropical Getaway
UNITEC Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Management, Auckland, New Zealand
This article examines the origin and implementation of a strategic brand image and marketing plan, commenced at the beginning of 1999. The plan looks at the achievements of the Fiji Visitors Bureau (FVB) over the previous 5 years and reflects on the current external environment in context with competitors' activities. The Fiji Visitors Bureau is responsible for maximizing the economic and social benefits of tourism to Fiji from overseas. The FVB is accountable for developing and implementing strategies to stimulate demand from overseas markets with a particular view to sustainable and environmentally friendly growth. A cooperative promotional effort involving all stakeholders within the tourism industry is fundamental to the plan. Continuous research and feedback on the plan is desirable. Planners need to be able to quickly identify key segments in the market mix that have grown or stagnated over time and learn from past experiences.
Key words: Brand image; Marketing; Fiji Islands; Fiji Visitors Bureau
Address correspondence to Peter Wiltshier, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Management, Private Bag 92025, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: (649) 849 4180; Fax: (649) 815 4374; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Interpreting Tour Experiences: The Case of Structured Backpacker Tours in New Zealand
Lincoln University, Human Sciences Division, Canterbury, New Zealand
This article reports on a study of structured backpacker tours in New Zealand. Six coach tours were included in the study. Quantitative and qualitative social research methods were used to explore the role of the natural environment, types of activity, and the structure of daily routine in providing meaning for structured backpacker tour experiences. Methods used to gain access to these meanings included on-tour questionnaires, overt participant observation, semistructured interviews, analysis of passengers' photographs taken on tour, and posttour questionnaires. The strategy by which these methods were combined took into account Fridgen's (1984) five-phase (anticipation, travel-to-site, on-site, return travel, and recollection) theoretical framework for analyzing tourism experiences, MacCannell's (1976) notion of authenticity, Cohen's (1988) typology of tourist experiences, and Pearce's (1988) travel career model. Questionnaire results indicated patterns in backpacker profiles and tour preferences. Observations and interviews produced rich data that confirmed and cross-validated questionnaire results. Therefore, researchers should consider the value of combining a range of appropriate methods to adequately explore and describe structured backpacker tour experiences that take place in complex social and environmental settings.
Key words: Tourism experiences; Backpacker tourism; Combined methods; Phenomenology
Address correspondence to Dominic Moran, Lincoln University, Human Sciences division, P.O. Box 84, Canterbury, New Zealand. E-mail: email@example.com
Pacific Rim Cuisine
Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Pacific Rim cuisine is the combination of culinary styles and ingredients from the countries of the Pacific Rim, including New Zealand. It is predicted to be one of the leading culinary trends for the next decade. This article will explore the potential of Pacific Rim cuisine in promoting the quality of New Zealand food and beverage and consequent agritourism images of New Zealand beneficial to the positioning of New Zealand as a tourist destination. The benefits of promoting New Zealand produce in Pacific Rim cuisine are twofold. First, the emphasis on fresh, high-quality produce is exemplary of New Zealand food and beverage both of the New Zealand hospitality sector and of New Zealand export goods. Second, the utilization and promotion of New Zealand food and beverage products in a Pacific Rim culinary context and setting may enhance agritourism images of New Zealand. For example, the emphasis of quality and selection of New Zealand seafood may aid in international perceptions of New Zealand as a South Pacific island getaway. It will be discussed that the promotion of Pacific Rim cuisine will not only complement New Zealand cuisine, but also images of New Zealand as a tourist destination.
Key words: Pacific Rim cuisine; Perceptions; Agritourism; Food and beverage exports
Address correspondence to Fleur Cutforth, St Ita's Guesthouse, River
Road, Rakaia Village, New Zealand. E-mail: Fleur_cutforth@hotmail.com