|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 4, NUMBER 2/3, 2000
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 4, pp. 63-73,
1088-4157/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Centre for Leisure and Tourism Studies, University of North London, Stapleton House, 277-281 Holloway Road, London N7 8HN, UK
Globalization in Bali is closely linked to tourism, and a substantial literature has emerged decrying the alleged threat posed by this industry to traditional society. Wood, however, takes issue with the view that tourism may be likened to a game of billiards, in which the moving ball (tourism) acts upon an inert ball (the local culture). Wood maintains that this approach treats indigenous culture as uniform, passive, and inert and he has argued that international tourism neither destroys local culture nor simply conserves it. Instead, tourism is caught up in an ongoing experience of cultural invention, in which Westernization is but a part of a wider process of cultural change. The new world system, instead of creating global cultural homogeneity, supplants one set of separate diversities with another set based on interrelations. This article provides a preliminary examination of tourism and globalization in Bali, especially with regard to museum representations and the performing arts.
Key words: Globalization; Tourism; Anthropology; Bali; Images
Address correspondence to Michael Hitchcock. Tel: 44 (0)20 7753 5796; Fax: 44 (0)20 7753 5051; E-mail: email@example.com
Huub De Jonge
Department of Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Balinese tourism provides employment not only for Balinese but also for job-seekers from all over Indonesia. Quite a number of branches in the tourist industry are controlled by people who know or trust each other, such as individuals from the same place or members of the same ethnic group. This article deals with one of the most successful ethnic groups among the street and beach sellers in Kuta (i.e., the migrants from the small island of Raas), who almost completely dominate the trade in fake designer-label caps and watches. It is made clear that their domination of this sector of the asongan, or ambulant trade, is the result of different factors, such as their age-long migration tradition, their diligence and reliability, and, last but not least, the use of ethnicity as a medium of organization and a source of power. Because of the competition with other ethnic groups, the distance between the migrants from Raas and Indonesians from other places has widened considerably, which has reinforced the ethnic identity within the local Raas community. Ethnicity not only looms large in the economic field, it also plays a prominent role in other spheres of life.
Key words: Ethnicity; Trade; Migration; Bali
Address correspondence to Huub de Jonge. Tel: 31 24 3612361; Fax: 31 24 3611945; E-mail: H.deJonge@maw.kun.nl
Dusun Sade: Local Tourist Guides, the Provincial Government, and the (Re)Presentation of a Traditional Village in Central Lombok
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Business Anthropology, De Boelelaan 1081c, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
This article focuses on the complex "struggle" for authorized representations of local culture and history. The aim is to discuss the role of local tourist guides and the policy of the provincial government in the representation of a tourist sight on Lombok, Indonesia. It examines the "traditional" village Sade. Sade is considered to be a heritage site. The government has developed the village as an open-air museum in which the presentation of traditional elements of local culture is most important. The "struggle" for an authorized (re)presentation has to be connected to regional tourism planning and development. The strategies of the local tourist guides will be placed within the policy of the provincial government concerning this tourist site and the efforts of the provincial government to develop an independent identity for the island Lombok. Although the national government does acknowledge cultural differences in their promotion of the national identity ("Unity in Diversity"), these differences are determined according to Javanese standards. This domination of the Javanese can lead to a regional awakening, which manifests itself as a local ethnic/cultural identity. A focus on the tourism development of Lombok is one way to visualize these politics of identity or, in other words, the politics of (re)presentation of the local culture.
Key words: Lombok; Local culture; Identity development; Tourist guide strategies
Address correspondence to Karin Bras. Tel: 31 20 4446727; Fax: 31 20 4446722; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Eric Kline Silverman
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135
This essay discusses how people in the middle Sepik River of Papua New Guinea envision, act through, and manipulate tourism. My geographic center is Tambunum, the largest Iatmul-speaking village in the Sepik and one of the most popular tourist destinations in Papua New Guinea. Topically, I focus on the economics of tourist art, the role of a guesthouse in village politics, modern and traditional symbolism in tourist art, sexuality, and literacy. My argument is that, despite asymmetries inherent in tourism, local people in Tambunum enact numerous modes of creativity, agency, and hybridity in the touristic encounter.
Key words: Tourism; Sepik; Art
Address correspondence to Eric Kline Silverman. Tel: (765) 658-4889; Fax: (765) 658-4799; E-mail: email@example.com
Huli Wigmen Engage Tourists: Self-Adornment and Ethnicity in the Papua New Guinea Highlands
Irian Jaya Studies Program (ISIR) at Leiden University, Nonnensteeg 1-3, 2311 VJ Leiden, the Netherlands
This article shows the way Huli see self-adornment as part of a core of skills and knowledge inherited from their ancestors. It is one of the facets by which Huli distinguish themselves from their precontact as well as their current cultural neighbors. A recent revival of Huli dance performances, which have acquired worldwide fame, allows Huli men to pursue self-determination and affect their own destiny in a wider world. While for Western tourists Huli decorative styles are the authentic culture of a timeless present, Huli, dancing for tourists, feel a sense of superiority and empowerment in the face of foreign strength and wealth. The encounter with tourists and the creative tradition of self-adornment and display in performances for tourists express Huli desire and agency within the modern world system.
Key words: Papua New Guinea; Ethnicity; Self-adornment; Huli wigmen
Address correspondence to Jaap Timmer.
Tales of Tiwiness: Tourism and Self-Determination in an Australian Aboriginal Society
Centre for Pacific and Asian Studies, University of Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Since the early 1980s the Tiwi people in the Northern Territory of Australia have been involved in the development of a local tourism industry. In 1986, the Tiwi, represented by the Tiwi Land Council, went into business themselves. Their business holding reached joint venture agreements with non-Tiwi operators. Next, consistent with its policy, the holding got an equity share on behalf of all Tiwi. In 1995, total ownership of the tourist enterprises was obtained after a buyout of joint venture partners. It became the task of the newly established Tiwi Tourism Authority to control tourism on the islands for the benefit of Tiwi interests. The Tiwi have found recognition as pioneers in so-called Aboriginal tourism. In the present-day constellation the goodwill earned by this entrepreneurship from the government and the business world are intangible benefits. The same accounts for the increased visibility of the Tiwi due to their tourism and--closely related--arts industry. It generated symbolic capital within the Tiwi domain and beyond. In terms of "development'' and "self-determination,'' the enterprising Tiwi leadership was able to negotiate its worth and identity.
Key words: Aboriginal tourism; Development; Self-determination; Identity formation
Address correspondence to Eric Venbrux. Tel:
31 24 3612364; Fax: 31 24 3611945; E-mail: E.Venbrux@maw.kun.nl