|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 4, NUMBER 4
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 4, pp. 149-159
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Division of Marketing and International Business, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
This article is concerned with the Greater Mekong Subregion and attempts that are being made to develop and promote it as a tourist destination. It summarizes the tourism characteristics of those countries making up the region and assesses the initiatives designed to coordinate policies and activities, often involving external agencies, within the context of strategic alliance marketing theory. The success of the program is considered and the viability of this type of place promotion in general is discussed. Overall there appears to be a need for further research into the subject, especially into questions of measuring effectiveness over a period of time, in order to improve appreciation of the principles and practices of this particular form of destination marketing and ensure that the investment in it of scarce resources proves worthwhile.
Key words: Destination marketing; Strategic alliances; Mekong tourism
Address correspondence to Joan Henderson, Assistant Professor. Tel: 65 790 6116; Fax: 65 791 3697; E-mail: email@example.com
Department of Tourism, University Of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
Commercially guided climbers have been largely neglected in tourism and leisure research. However, several studies have concentrated on nonguided climbers and other mountain recreationists. This article presents the results from research conducted over New Zealand's 1997-98 summer climbing season. A questionnaire was distributed to 107 guided climbers over a 6-week period. Sixty-seven usable questionnaires were returned, providing a response rate of 63%. Demographic characteristics and reasons why respondents participated in mountain climbing were gathered. Factors influencing the decision to hire a guide service and the levels of satisfaction with the guided experience were also explored. Dominant motivations for climbing were related to the aesthetic and physical enjoyment of the alpine environment, followed by intrinsic benefits, educational, psychological, and physiological reasons. Motivations involving the experience of solitude, social reasons, relaxation, and increased status were the least important for the majority of clients. Guides were hired primarily for reasons relating to increased safety, learning new skills, and ease of organization. Overall satisfaction with the guided experience was extremely high for reasons predominantly relating to the natural environment, intrinsic benefits, skill acquisition, and enjoyment of the activity itself. The research findings indicated that guided mountaineering in the Southern Alps can provide people with a quality alpine experience, satisfying their expectations while fulfilling a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic needs.
Key words: New Zealand Mountain Guides' Association; Adventure; Mountaineering; Motivations; Expectations; Benefits; Experiences
Address correspondence to Anna Carr. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper was selected for publication by the late Dr. Martin Oppermann as one of the best papers presented at the 2nd National Tourism Students' Conference, 22-23 August 1998, Centre for Tourism University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
"Farming the Tourist": The Social Benefits of Farm Tourism in Southland, New Zealand
Centre For Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
Is farm tourism more than just an economic-driven business in Southland? What other benefits are there? Farm tourism in New Zealand is a fast growing industry as proposed "new tourists" described by Poon (1993) want to experience more than the usual tourist attractions and sites. They want to experience the real New Zealand and meet real New Zealanders. This article discusses farm tourism from the farm host perspective and asks the following questions: "Why did the host decide to venture into farm tourism?" and "Are they satisfied with the outcome?" The article provides a demographic profile of the hosts and then discusses the results of a consensus survey of the Southland region of New Zealand, conducted in November 1997. Results showed varied host characteristics and confirmed previous research findings on host motivations, social benefits, and satisfaction.
Key words: Rural tourism; Farm tourism; Definitions; Host motivations; Expectations; Satisfaction; Social benefits
Address correspondence to Lise Hogh.
Visitor Perception of Natural Hazards at New Zealand Tourism Attractions
Stephen R. Espiner
Human Sciences Division, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
Visitor management in New Zealand's natural areas is increasingly complex, with continued diversification in consumption style, visitor type and origin, and a heightened expectation and demand from both the tourism industry and the visitors themselves. Central to the visitor management challenge is maximizing the safety of visitors while preserving the unique and individual significance of the outdoor experience. As the majority of New Zealand's visitor attractions are located in largely unmodified natural environments, visitors potentially face a number of natural hazards. While the inherent risks may be evident to managers and more experienced visitors, the extent to which casual visitors perceive natural hazards has important influence over (and implications for) both individual visitor behavior and the hazard management style adopted at specific visitor sites. To this end, the current study examines the extent to which visitors to Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers demonstrate an awareness of hazards, and the effectiveness of both existing and introduced hazard signs on visitor awareness and behavior. Initial analysis suggests that, among some international visitors in particular, hazard perception is poor, and that alternative hazard signs may help increase visitor awareness of hazards and reduce inappropriate risk behaviors.
Key words: Hazard; Risk; Perceptions; Visitor management; Natural attractions
Address correspondence to Stephen R. Espiner. Tel: 64 3 325 2811, x8770; Fax: 64 3 325 3857; E-mail: email@example.com.
Planning for Sustainable Tourism
Department of Geographical Sciences & Planning, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072
Sustainable tourism is a concept that attempts to coordinate the complex interactions between the tourism industry, visitors, the environment, and host communities. It involves working for the long-term viability and quality of natural and human resources. Sustainable tourism has many, often conflicting, goals and, combined with different interpretations of the concept, implementation of these ideals is not always achieved. Planning (land use, town and country planning) has the potential to play an important role in facilitating the development of tourism while minimizing negative impacts and achieving sustainability. Comprehensive local and regional plans provide a baseline of data with which new development can be adequately assessed and impacts controlled. Tourism planning has historically been driven by market forces, and there is continuous tension between the notions of sustainability and sustained economic growth. There are obviously limitations to the current integration of land use planning and tourism development as negative impacts continue to occur. The essential problem is that the methods and processes in current use are allowing undesirable cumulative environmental, economic, and social changes, which threaten the long-term sustainability of tourist regions. More explicit models for this type of planning are required. Despite the historical separation of the public planning system and the private tourism sector it can be concluded that planning in its strategic, coordinating, monitoring, and consultative role has the potential to facilitate sustainability of tourism development.
Key words: Sustainability; Planning; Tourism development
Address correspondence to Lisa Testoni. Tel: (07) 3365 6529; Fax: (07) 3365 6899; E-mail: L.Testoni@mailbox.uq.edu.au
Statutory Authorities in Whose Interests? The Case of Tourism New South Wales, the Bed Tax, and "The Games"
Department of Leisure and Tourism Studies, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia
Statutory corporations have been and are familiar and significant features of Australia's physical, political, economic, and social development. Focusing on tourism statutory corporations, namely Tourism New South Wales, this article has two aims. First, it contributes to knowledge of business-government relations in tourism in Australia. Secondly, and as an extension of the first aim, this article explores two key dimensions of economic power: interlocking directors, and the relationship of big business to the governmental process, of economic to political power. Case studies of Tourism New South Wales and of the brokering of the Sydney "bed tax" deal are presented. In these overlapping case studies, the relationships between big business, tourism industry associations, and government corporations and representatives are explored. The case studies reveal that Tourism New South Wales and other statutory corporations are very important conduits for business interests to influence government. The extent and nature of such influence are major concerns because the "public interest" is at stake. The Boards of Directors of statutory corporations, such as Tourism New South Wales, their responsible ministers, and a host of associated interests, including pressure groups and former politicians and political party members, form a very complex web of actors and agencies. The divide between public and private agencies is very muddy, and conflicts of interest abound.
Key words: Statutory corporation; Tourism policy; Political economy; Business-government relations; Bed tax; Tourism New South Wales
Address correspondence to Dr. John Jenkins, Senior Lecturer. Tel:
49216847; Fax: 49217402; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org