ognizant Communication Corporation

PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 5, NUMBERS 1/2

Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 5-11
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Operational Issues in Marketing Research: An Example of the Omnibus Tourism Survey

Edith Hui Leung Leung and Bob Mckercher

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

This article reports on the operational process of conducting the Omnibus Tourism Survey at the Hong Kong International Airport by the Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The study was developed from an idea to integrate a number of small projects into one large survey instrument to achieve a cost-effective means of collecting appropriate tourism data of the highest quality. The process of how the survey was operationalized is presented, as well as providing a general overview of the data set. The article also explains the method used for the data presented in the articles that follow in this special issue. Suggestions are provided to other academics and tourism organizations that may be interested in delivering a large-scale, broadly based visitor survey in a rigorous and cost-effective manner.

Key words: Hong Kong; Inbound tourism; Methodology; Market research

Address correspondence to Dr. Bob McKercher, Associate Professor, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 6553; E-mail: hmbob@polyu.edu.hk




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 13-19
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Analysis of Historical Tourism Development and its Implications to the Tourism Industry in Hong Kong

Zhang Qiu Hanqin, Kevin K. F. Wong, and Leslie Or Yin Sik

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

The objectives of this article are to analyze the historical evolution of tourism development in Hong Kong from 1961 to 1999. Secondary data of international tourist arrivals and tourist receipts are used to identify and analyze travel trends and patterns as well as economic impact. Tourism grew substantially over the past four decades, with visitation numbers and receipts peaking in 1997. Both income and visitor numbers declined as a result of the Asian economic crisis, before recovering during 1999. Short-haul tourists have a dominant position in the market. In particular, Chinese and Taiwanese tourists are gaining significance in terms of number of arrivals and amount of receipts. Tourism currently contributes 6.6% to the Hong Kong GDP.

Key words: Historical tourism review; Tourist arrivals; Expenditures; Hong Kong

Address correspondence to Dr. Hanqin Qiu Zhang, CHE, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: 852-2766-6368; Fax: 852-23639362; E-mail: hmhanqin@polyu.edu.hk




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 21-30
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
 
Cultural Distance and Participation in Cultural Tourism

Bob Mckercher and Billie Chow So-Ming

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Cultural distance refers to the extent to which the culture of the originating region differs from that of the host region. It is hypothesized in this article that cultural distance influences participation in cultural tourism, with visitors from more culturally distant source markets being more interested in cultural tourism than those from culturally proximate source markets. Through the comparison of visitor profiles, cultural tourism participation rates, and activities pursued, visitors to Hong Kong from three Asian and three Western source markets are examined. The article reveals that there are statistically significant differences between these two groups.

Key words: Cultural tourism; Cultural distance; Hong Kong

Address correspondence to Dr. Bob McKercher, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 6553; E-mail: hmbob@polyu.edu.hk




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 31-39
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cross-Border Tourism: An Empirical Study of Tourism into the Pearl River Delta

Bob Mckercher

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Hong Kong, Macau, and Guangdong Province in Mainland China have been promoting the Pearl River Delta area as a contiguous destination since 1993. This program has met with some success, in spite of significant political and bureaucratic obstacles. This article presents the results of an empirical study examining cross-border tourism from Hong Kong to either the then Portuguese enclave of Macau or to Guangdong Province in neighboring China. The study revealed that most cross-border tourism involves day trip forays into either Macau or Guangdong, with extending tours being rare. Further, there is little evidence that tourists regard the region as a contiguous destination. Instead, they appear to make a discrete choice to visit one destination or the other, but not both. Cross-border tourists exhibit significant differences in their travel patterns compared with other tourists, tending to stay longer in Hong Kong and to include more stops on their travel itineraries.

Key words: Pearl River; Cross-border tourism; Macau; Hong Kong; Guangdong, China

Address correspondence to Dr. Bob McKercher, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 6553; E-mail: hmbob@polyu.edu.hk




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 41-48
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tipping By Foreign Tourists

B. W. A. (Ben) Dewald

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

Tipping is a sensitive topic in Asia, where breaches of social convention are taken more personally than they would be in the West. Tipping practices are widespread, and rewarding good service without causing anyone to "lose face" in Asia can be difficult. Tipping is not a Chinese custom but with British influence came the practice of tipping. Though there is a 10% service gratuity added to most restaurant and hotel bills, tips are still expected. This article examines the tipping habits of tourists from six distinct countries--three Asian and three Western--while visiting Hong Kong. This study shows that even though there is a slight adaptation to local tipping habits, those who tip more often at home do the same while traveling abroad. Americans tended to tip more often and in relation to service whereas British and Australian tourists tipped less frequently. Mainland Chinese tipped the least often. A relationship between service quality and tipping frequency was shown for some personal, one-on-one services.

Key words: Tipping; Service charge; Customer satisfaction; National culture

Address correspondence to B. W. A. (Ben) Dewald, Lecturer, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 6553; E-mail: hmben@polyu.edu.hk




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 49-56
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Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
 
Tourists' Perceptions of Their Level of Contact with Host Residents

John Ap

Department of Hotel Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Tourism has often been cited as a phenomenon that helps promote cultural exchange, world peace, and mutual understanding between peoples and cultures. This exploratory study attempts to identify the nature and characteristics of tourist-host contact, and examines how tourists visiting the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) perceive the contact they had with local residents. A tourist-host contact scale was also developed in this study. The findings revealed that most respondents perceived their contact with their hosts positively. With the list of contact attributes identified, the attributes may be grouped into two dimensions: quality of contact and intensity of contact. A degree of robustness was found in the contact scale that was developed. However, the reliability of the intensity of contact dimension was low and the cumulative variance was 46%, which suggests that our understanding of the phenomenon is still lacking and that there is room for improvement of our knowledge and understanding of this multidimensional concept. Suggestions for further research to improve our understanding of this phenomenon are also discussed.

Key words: Contact; Contact scale; Tourist-host interaction

Address correspondence to John Ap, Department of Hotel Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 6348; Fax: (852) 2362 9362; E-mail: hmjohnap@polyu.edu.hk




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 57-65
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Satisfaction with Local Tour Guides in Hong Kong

Alan Wong

Department of Hotel & Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

This is an exploratory study about international tourists' perceived satisfaction with the overall service provided by local tour guides in Hong Kong. The results indicate that, overall, respondents from this sample indicated positive satisfaction. Three "satisfying" and five "unsatisfying" dimensions relating to the service provided by local tour guides in Hong Kong emerged. This survey also brings out areas of impact, according to certain demographic variables, on the overall perceived satisfaction with local tour guides in Hong Kong. Differences in age, educational level, annual household income levels, country of residence, and purpose of visit were statistically significant. Further research is needed into how tour products should be designed, and the training of tour guides, in order to meet the needs and challenges of different market segments, as well as the fast-changing environment.

Key words: Tour guiding; Service quality; Visitor satisfaction; Cultural differences

Address correspondence to Alan Wong, Lecturer, Department of Hotel & Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 6321; E-mail: hmalan@polyu.edu.hk




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 67-72
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
 
The Impact of Air Quality on Tourism: The Case of Hong Kong*

Catherine Cheung and Rob Law

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

With the increasing concern of Hong Kong's poor air quality and its impact on Hong Kong's competitiveness as a travel destination, air pollution in Hong Kong has become an important issue. At present, little research attention has been given to investigate whether air pollution will affect tourists' experience. This study can therefore contribute to the existing tourism literature on air quality and tourism. It also helps to set the stage for future research in urban environmental sustainability. Over 1000 inbound tourists were interviewed at the Hong Kong International Airport. Research results reveal that there does exist a significant difference between Asian and Western travelers on choice of travel destination and environmental values. When choosing Hong Kong as a travel destination, air quality is a minor concern to both Asian and Western travelers. However, Asian visitors seem to be more conscious of air quality when selecting a destination than Western visitors. In addition, the Asian tourists' standard of what constitutes acceptable air quality is lower than their Western counterparts. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that the majority of the Westerners who have an environmental friendly mind are more likely to be influenced by the air quality than Asians. The study also reveals that the air quality in Hong Kong is still acceptable to tourists. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to improve the air quality in Hong Kong to enhance tourists' satisfaction.

Key words: Hong Kong; Tourism; Air quality

Address correspondence to Ms. Catherine Cheung, Department of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 4581; Fax: (852) 2362 9362; E-mail: hmcat@polyu.edu.hk

*A shortened industrial version of this article appears as Cheung, C., and Law, R. (2000), "A study of the visitors' perception towards air pollution in Hong Kong," The Voice of TIC, 3, pp. 22-24.




Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 73-80
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
 
Does the Environment Matter? Experiences, Attitudes, and Revisit Intentions of International Visitors to Hong Kong

Thomas G. Bauer and Andrew Chan

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Hong Kong is the most popular tourist destination in Asia attracting nearly 11 million visitors during 1999. The World Tourism Organization forecasts that visitor arrivals will increase to 56.6 million by 2020. However, Hong Kong's deteriorating environment may negatively impact on such future growth. During late 1999 and early 2000, high levels of air pollution plagued the city for days on end and the local English-speaking newspapers carried many stories about the poor state of the environment. It is often suggested that tourism depends on a "clean and green" environment and that in the absence of such an environment visitor arrivals to a destination may decline. The present study surveyed 1083 departing Asian (China, Singapore, and Taiwan) and Western (Australia, United Kingdom, and United States) visitors. It investigated whether visitors had been negatively affected by environmental conditions during their stay in Hong Kong and, if so, whether these conditions would affect their intention to revisit. The study found that noise levels in the streets, the cleanliness of streets, and air quality were of concern to visitors. Compared with Western visitors, higher percentages of Asian visitors felt that Hong Kong's environment was worse than other cities in Asia and such impressions do have certain impact on their intention to revisit. The study further investigated the attitude of departing visitors towards environmental issues.

Key words: Hong Kong; Tourism; Environment; Revisit intentions

Address correspondence to Thomas G. Bauer, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: 852-2766-4773; Fax: 852-2362-9362; E-mail: hmthomas@polyu.edu.hk