|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 5, NUMBERS 3/4
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 5, pp. 83-95
1088-4157/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Academia-Industry Tourism Research Links: States of
The Martin Oppermann Memorial Lecture 2000
Department of Tourism Management, The Waikato Management School, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
The lecture examined the relationship between academia and the "tourism industry" using initiatives in Australia and New Zealand as an example. It is argued that much of the liaison between academia and industry is really a relationship between universities and the public or quasi-public sector, with some work being done at an individual lecturer/small entrepreneur level. If this is the case, it raises issues about the nature of the "asset" of expertise that arguably exists within universities, its relevance, and its ability to sustain and renew itself. In short, the nature of the debate goes beyond one of simply seeing university staff as a research resource for industry, but is a symbiotic relationship whereby the private sector should be concerned about the research opportunities being provided because of the implications for curriculum design and subsequent student and employee skills and an understanding of research. These relationships exist within a context of change in universities towards a mass educational system in both countries, whereby the resource per student has consistently fallen. An example of potential shortfalls is provided by reference to commercial consultancy wherein deficiencies on the part of both the consultant and the client as to what constituted good research led to eventual legal action. It is concluded that it is in the interest of the private sector to more actively use the research skills of university staff, not only as a "cheaper" option to consultants, but as a means of learning about research skills to become more demanding as clients of consultants and as a means of ensuring that they can employ young people who, in turn, as potential managers, have a better understanding of what should be delivered by all research providers.
Key words: Research skills; University-industry links
Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, Department of Tourism, Management, The Waikato Management School, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. E-mail email@example.com
Strategies to Meet the Challenges of Theme Parks in Singapore
Peggy Teo and Brenda S. A. Yeoh
Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 1 Arts Link, Singapore 117570
Recently, interest in theme parks in the Asia-Pacific region has increased, fueled by higher affluence and more leisure time. Investment in this industry has risen and is estimated to be no less than US$300 million in Singapore alone. While classical theme parks such as Disneyland and Disney World are held up for their enduring formula in keeping attendance rates up, whether their formula travels well across international boundaries to Asia (and Singapore in particular) is open to interpretation, in spite of Tokyo's experience. This article finds that although similarities exists in the profile of visitors (namely, more local visitors who are family oriented, better educated, and belonging to a range of age groups, with only slightly more younger people), Singapore's theme parks need to take into account intrinsic cultural differences such as the preference for "safe" rides, for mixing fun with learning, and for family and group orientation in the design and running of its parks. The implications are that challenges vary according to contexts and operators must bear these in mind when planning their strategies to keep in business.
Key words: Theme parks; Singapore; Business strategies
Address correspondence to Peggy Teo, Associate Professor, Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 1 Arts Link, Singapore 117570. Tel: 65-874 6104; Fax: 65-777 3091; E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
A Study of International Tourism Development in China
Terry Lam1 and Fulu Mao2
1School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
2Department of Tourism Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China
The tourism industry in mainland China has been growing rapidly since the country started implementing its open-door policy in 1978. Tourism development has always been one of the essential agenda items in the Chinese government's master plan for economic growth, and a priority issue for academic study. This article describes the three stages of tourism development in China, examines the constraints, favorable factors, and opportunities for tourism development. The findings show that the quality of the infrastructure is poor and that the software (workforce) is still below the international standard. The government has so far failed to develop a long-term master plan resulting in an adequate supply of hotel rooms and tourist attractions. Of course, China itself is a tourist attraction. A strong government commitment to tourism development, a focus on the untapped Taiwan market, and entry into the WTO are important factors for the growth of China's tourism industry.
Key words: Tourism; Tourism development; Development stages; China
Address correspondence to Dr. Terry Lam, Senior Lecturer, School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: 852 27666370; Fax: 852 23629362; E-mail: email@example.com
The Impact of the Pink Dollar: Wellington as a Destination for the Gay Market
Peter Wiltshier and Andrew Cardow
Applied Management, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
This report investigates the economic impact of gay tourism expenditure within the Wellington region. An associated theme will be the benefits of specifically targeting the gay tourist to visit the region. There is increasing public perception that gays and lesbians have different needs than those of the rest of the community. This can be seen in the rise of gay political and commercial organizations that are well documented. However, there is a lack of clarity in specifically uncovering the economic impact of the gay dollar. In order to test this assumption, a targeted self-reported survey was included in OUT!, a gay magazine with national coverage. This publication has 500 subscribers and is also sold in general bookshops. The intention of the survey was to establish the numbers of gay men traveling to Wellington and their expenditure and reasons for travel to Wellington. In this regard the study uncovers an identifiable niche market.
Key words: Gay tourism; Wellington; Spending
Address correspondence to Peter Wiltshier, Lecturer, Applied Management, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Private Bag 92 025 Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: 64 9 849 4180; Fax: 64 9 815 4374; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Short, Unhappy Life of an Australia-Based Cruise Line
Norman Douglas1 and Ngaire Douglas2
1Pacific Profiles, PO Box 229, Alstonville, NSW 2477, Australia
2School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Military Road, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia
The history of the Australian cruise sector is peppered with tales of failure. These range from merely publicized ideas that never moved further, to companies that promoted forthcoming cruises and ships with extensive tangible marketing products, to registered companies that employed several hundred people who eagerly anticipated the widely promoted arrival of a superannuated North Sea ferry supposedly converted to a luxury cruise ship. This article examines the rise and fall of a cruise company that had a real ship with real cruise itineraries. The Norwegian Capricorn Line was present in Australian waters for just 22 months from December 1998 to October 2000. During that time the public was targeted widely with promotional material and the media chartered its course with avid interest. Factors that contributed to the company's demise included poor management, changing marketing strategies, lack of anticipated business from the American fly/cruise market, and the small size of the Australian cruise tourist market.
Key words: Cruising; Cunard; Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL); Norwegian Capricorn Line; P&O; Star Cruises; Australian cruise market
Address correspondence to Dr. Ngaire Douglas, Senior Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Military Road, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com
Sex Differences in Hotel Employee Training in the Western United States
Wesley S. Roehl1 and Skip Swerdlow2
1School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University,
Broad Street & Montgomery Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19122
2Department of Hotel Management, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-6021
Training plays an important part in the provision of quality tourism products. However, evidence suggests that women and men are often not treated the same in the tourism workplace. This study examined sex differences in the types of training received and in the total number of types of training received, among a sample of hotel employees in the US. Logistic regression results indicated that no sex differences were observed between men and women in the types of training they received. Interestingly, multiple regression results indicated that women reported receiving more types of training than did men.
Key words: Human resources; Training; Sex discrimination; Hotels
Address correspondence to Wesley S. Roehl, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, 201-C Vivacqua Hall (062-62), Broad Street & Montgomery Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19122. Tel: (215) 204-5861; Fax: (215) 204-2139; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Golden Anniversaries: Festival Tourism and the 150th Anniversary of the Gold Rushes in California and Victoria
Department of Management, Monash University, Clyde Rd., Berwick 3806, Australia
Anniversary festivals and celebrations are a growing form of festivals and events. However, they have not been the subject of much examination and analysis. This article seeks to remedy this by considering the planning and development of two related anniversary festivals: the celebrations of 150 years since the Californian and Victorian gold rushes. In both cases organizers have had to deal with the problems of an event that is only held every 50 years, the difficulties of attracting visitors to regional areas, and the divisiveness of celebrating historical events for which there are winners and losers.
Key words: Festivals; Historical anniversaries; Gold rushes; Heritage
Address correspondence to Warwick Frost, Department of Management, Monash University, Clyde Rd., Berwick 3806, Australia. Tel: 03 9904 7042; Fax: 03 9904 7130; E-mail: Warwick.email@example.com
Shopping for Souvenir Clothing
Doris Kincade1 and Ginger Woodard2
1Department of Near Environments, Virginia Tech, 109 Wallace
Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0410
2Department of Apparel, Merchandising & Interior Design, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858-4353
Tourism is the largest growth industry in the US with expansion estimated 5-10% for the next 10 years. Shopping is the number one activity among tourists. For retailers located in tourist areas, understanding the purchasing tourist consumer is important. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to identify the characteristics of consumers who buy souvenir clothing. College students who have a propensity to travel were surveyed. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: shopping and fashion attitudes, souvenir purchasing behavior, and demographics. Results indicated that individuals who liked to shop for clothing also enjoyed shopping for clothing on vacation, at new places, and with souvenir retailers. In general, those identified as tourist shoppers were not concerned with their fashion image and the majority were women. Marketing to female shoppers will increase the tourist dollars spent on clothing items. Additional study is needed to identify the perception of tourist shoppers about interest in fashion products and in high-quality products, and to evaluate the shopper's choice patterns among quality, fashionability, and event or locational logos. Also needing further study is an understanding of merchandise characteristics and store preferences among tourist shoppers.
Key words: Shopping; Souvenir clothing; Tourist shoppers; Purchasing trends
Address correspondence to Ginger Woodard, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Dept. of Apparel, Merchandising & Interior Design, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858-4353. Tel: (252) 328-1363; E-mail: Woodardg@mail.ecu.edu
Economic Scale of a Community Event: The Lafayette Mardi Gras
Larry Dwyer,1 Jerome Agrusa,2 and Wendy Coats3
1University of Western Sydney
2University of Louisiana at Lafayette
3A. C. and Associates
Small communities around the world are developing festivals and events as an adjunct to community development and economic prosperity. This article has three objectives. First, to explore the economic scale of the Lafayette Mardi Gras. Second, to discuss some other types of economic impacts that are relevant in determining the economic significance of the festival to the local community. Third, to discuss some wider costs and benefits that must be taken into account in assessing the overall impact of the Mardi Gras on the community. As will be seen, the economic significance of this event is not unrelated to community attitudes towards it, but the latter are often neglected in event assessment. The article thus devotes some discussion to the importance of the Mardi Gras in instilling a sense of pride and a sense of place to the resident community. A theme that emerges clearly from the discussion is the interrelationships between the economic and other types of effects of the Mardi Gras. After all, it is community attachment to the festival that gives rise to economic effects in the first place.
Key words: Lafayette Mardi Gras; Community event; Economic scale; Economic impacts
Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer, Head of Tourism & Hospitality
Programs, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Campbelltown,
NSW 1797, Australia. Tel: (02) 46203248; Fax: (02) 46266683; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org