|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 6, pp. 3-21
1088-4157/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
This article examines the ways in which central government intentions for tourism development in New Zealand are progressively delegated through a three-tier system of regional government, local government, and regional tourism organizations. It briefly comments on the literature relating to strategic planning for tourism and notes the significant doubts expressed by some writers in terms of the practical relevance of well-established tourism planning theory. After reviewing the mechanisms established to guide the development and implementation of tourism strategy, the article describes a mail census of all 112 involved organizations to assess the extent to which they choose to discharge, or further delegate, their tourism planning responsibilities. The article concludes by noting that subnational government organizations are generally effective in discharging compulsorily allocated responsibilities, but that the predominance of permissive rather than prescriptive legislation has led to an uneven level of performance overall.
Key words: Tourism planning; Tourism strategy; Local government; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Ken Simpson, School of Management and Entrepreneurship, UNITEC Institute of Techology, Private Bag 92-025, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: (09) 815 4321, ext. 7015; Fax: (09) 815 2927; E-mail: email@example.com
School of Marketing and Tourism, Central Queensland University, University Drive, Bundaberg, Queensland 4670, Australia
This article presents results from the first formal investigation of domestic short-break holidays in New Zealand. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) was used to identify the perceived strengths and weaknesses of five leading destinations. The results identified 11 attributes deemed determinant in the travel context. The graphical nature of the IPA proved readily communicable to regional tourism organizations. However, while the technique proved useful at an individual destination analysis level, IPA proved cumbersome as a competitive positioning analysis tool.
Key words: Importance-performance analysis; Destination image; Regional tourism organizations; Determinant attributes; Short breaks
Address correspondence to Steve Pike, Senior Lecturer, School of Marketing and Tourism, Central Queensland University, University Drive, Bundaberg, Queensland 4670, Australia. Tel: +61-7-41507000; Fax: +61-7-41507000; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Understanding the Linkage Between Biodiversity and Tourism: A Study of Ecotourism in a Coastal Village in Fiji
Corazon C. Sinha and Robyn Bushell
School of Environment and Agriculture, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, New South Wales 1797, Australia
This article aims to contribute to an understanding of the linkage between biodiversity conservation and tourism. A case study of a village-based tourism venture in a remote location on Vanua Levu, the second largest island in Fiji, demonstrates this potential linkage in a typical coastal village. Tourism could contribute to biodiversity conservation and maintenance of cultural identity by reinforcing stories about local histories and promoting respect for traditional culture and use of natural resources. Small-scale tourism ventures are not uncommon in many coastal areas in Fiji. Tourism venture maintained at a stage where the number of tourists is low and tourists-villagers interaction is high may be more appropriate in island tourism where the preservation of cultural tradition is vital in the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity. A site-specific framework, depicting the integration of biodiversity components with tourism management, was developed to examine the interrelationships of biodiversity conservation and tourism. This research is not an ethnographic study. However, one of the major findings of this study was identifying the persistence of a traditional value system--the vanua system, which refers to the connection of people with the land through their ancestors and guardian spirits. This cultural belief of nurturing the people-land relationship is manifested in the daily life of the villagers. This could serve as a powerful mechanism promoting the linkage between biodiversity conservation and tourism management. Despite the dilution of the meaning of vanua in modern Fiji, it could be revitalized to regulate the consumptive and tourism uses of local biodiversity. The philosophy of the vanua has served as the guiding principle for the villagers in the management and sustainable use of the rain forest, mangrove forest, coral reef, and village garden. The same traditional concept can be a basis for biodiversity conservation beyond the realm of contemporary protected area system. The ecological systems upon which the villagers depend for subsistence are the very same resources that support tourism. Understanding the linkage between biodiversity and tourism could provide the basis for the promotion of biodiversity conservation and ecotourism.
Key words: Biodiversity; Vanua; Island tourism; Fiji
Address correspondence to Dr. Corazon C. Sinha, School of Environment and Agriculture, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, New South Wales 1797, Australia. Tel: 61 02 4570 1240; Fax: 61 02 4570 1207; E-mail: email@example.com
Dirk H. R. Spennemann,1 David W. Look,2 and Kristy Graham3
1Cultural Heritage Studies, The Johnstone Centre and School
of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, PO
Box 789, Albury NSW 2640, Australia
2Cultural Resources Team, Pacific Great Basin Support Office, Suite 600, 600 Harrison Street, National Park Service, San Francisco, CA 94107-1372
3School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, PO Box 789, Albury NSW 2640, Australia
Key Micronesian decision makers were polled to ascertain their knowledge and expectations of heritage ecotourism in the region. While the concept was embraced by the majority, levels of expectations and understanding of impacts varied. Priority rankings of perceived opportunities showed archaeological sites and natural environment to dominate, with colonial heritage places deemed comparatively insignificant.
Key words: Ecotourism; Heritage tourism; Micronesia; Economic development
Address correspondence to Dirk H. R. Spennemann, Ph.D., Associate Professor in Cultural Heritage Studies, The Johnstone Centre and School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt Unversity, PO Box 789, Albury NSW 2640, Australia. Tel: 61 2 6051-9947; Fax: 61 2 6051-9897; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org