|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 6, pp. 73-81
1088-4157/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
J. S. Perry Hobson
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia
This article is based on points delivered during the 2001 Martin Oppermann Memorial Lecture given at Griffith University, Australia. It presents the view that the emphasis of too much tourism research is on theory testing, as opposed to theory development and building. It questions on what theoretical basis so many of these hypotheses are formed. Given that tourism is a field of study that is still in the formative stages, the article argues that there remains a need for more exploratory research. The process of inductive qualitative research is examined, and is followed by a discussion on the background to grounded theory, its adaptation, and use.
Key words: Qualitative research; Exploratory research; Grounded theory
Address correspondence to Perry Hobson, Head, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157 Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. Tel: +61-2-66203259; E-mail: email@example.com
School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 Australia
As a rule, the economies of small states lack economic diversification and scope for diversifying their economic activities is limited compared to large states. One of the reasons for this is that they lack a diversified natural resource base due to their small geographical area. In a globalizing world economy involving greater freedom of trade and capital movements, the economies of small states are liable in most cases to become more specialized and vulnerable to external economic conditions. Therefore, policies are sometimes adopted by these states, or recommended by external agencies, to keep these economies more diversified than otherwise would be so. For instance, action to simulate tourism development is sometimes a part of the diversification strategy of small states, such as Brunei. While tourism development can make a significant contribution to the economic diversification and development of small states, its limitations must be recognized. In small states, these can include significant income leakages via imports and overseas remittances of profit by foreign investors in the tourism industry, adverse cultural impacts on the local community, unfavorable environmental consequences, little employment of locals because of (needed) reliance on guest-workers or expatriates, and, where the industry relies heavily on inbound tourists, a high degree of economic volatility. Sometimes, it is even possible for growth in tourism to reduce the diversity of a local economy and generate the "Dutch disease." Much depends on the particular circumstances because the tourism industry can also act as a growth pole and stimulate the development of other industries via backward economic linkages. Furthermore, it can provide a profitable extra economic opportunity for small states that have limited economic alternatives. Therefore, depending on its nature, the tourism industry can make a positive contribution to the economic diversification and development of small states. Brunei aims to become a "Service Hub for Trade and Tourism (SHuTT)" in its region. In this article, once the general review of tourism as a contributor to the economic diversification and development of small states is completed, Brunei's basic policies for SHuTT are outlined and examined, paying particular attention to the tourism component. Information deficiencies are identified as a major obstacle to the evaluation of Brunei's tourism policies, and recommendations are made in this regard.
Key words: Brueni; Economic diversification; Tourism development; Small economies; Limitations
Address correspondence to Clem Tisdell, School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 Australia. Tel: 61 7 3365 6570; Fax: 61 7 3365 7299; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism and Hospitality Strategy Group, School of Management, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, Australia
Tourism destinations are increasingly engaging in cooperative marketing activity with a view to increasing overall visitor numbers and expenditure to each of the cooperating regions. On what is herein called the "standard view," the increased visitation to each is assumed to generate a positive economic contribution: a win-win situation for the cooperative marketers. However, recent analyses of the impacts of tourism growth indicate that, depending on the mix of industries in these destinations, some may actually suffer reduced income and employment even in the face of increased tourism inflows and expenditure. The results have serious and hitherto unexplored implications for the appropriateness of cooperative destination marketing. This article exposes the assumptions underlying the standard view. It argues that economy-wide effects must be taken into account in determining the impacts of increased tourism expenditure on a destination, and discusses the implications for cooperative destination marketing.
Key words: Cooperative destination marketing; Economic impacts; Industry mix
Address correspondence to Professor Larry Dwyer, Head, Tourism and Hospitality Strategy Group, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith DC, NSW, 1797 Australia. Tel: +61 246 203248; Fax: +61 246 266683; E-mail: L.email@example.com
Vincent C. S. Heung, Thomas K. P. Leung, and Amy Tan
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
A large number of Hong Kong restaurants closed down in recent years due to the Asian economic crisis in late 1997 and the keen competition in the restaurant industry. One major cause for restaurant failures was the poor services provided by restaurants. Knowledge of the competitive status of a restaurant operation is critical to survive in a saturated restaurant market. This study aims to assess the relative competitiveness of three Chinese restaurant chains in Hong Kong using service quality indices. These Chinese restaurant chains were Hsin Kuang, Maxim's, and Treasure. A survey of 201 customers revealed that Maxim's Chinese Restaurant was the most competitive of all the restaurants surveyed, followed by Treasure Chinese Restaurant and Hsin Kuang Restaurant. The results suggest that the Hsin Kuang Chinese Restaurant was facing a serious problem in terms of relative competitiveness as the restaurant failed to meet the minimum levels of customers' service expectations. Implications of the findings for the Chinese restaurateurs are discussed.
Key words: Service quality indices; Chinese restaurant; Relative competitiveness
Address correspondence to Dr. Vincent C. S. Heung, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 2766 6330; Fax: (852) 2362 9362; E-mail: HMVHEUNG@POLYU.EDU.HK
And Now for the Next Hundred Years: An Assessment of National Tourism Policy Issues in New Zealand
School of Applied Management, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Private Bag 92-025, Auckland, New Zealand
Though there has been a national tourism organization (NTO) in New Zealand for more than 100 years, it was not until 2001 that a formal national tourism strategy document was first prepared. Consequently, the determination of tourism policy has often seemed to be at the mercy of a frequently shifting framework of government philosophies and practices. The new national tourism strategy is therefore a significant event in New Zealand's tourism industry development, and represents an important milestone in the country's drive towards an efficient and effective tourism sector. Arguing that the NTO's centenary year is an appropriate time to both review the past and anticipate the future, this article examines the history of New Zealand central government's involvement with tourism, before evaluating the implications of a new national tourism strategy for central government's tourism policy agencies.
Key words: National tourism policy; New Zealand; Government involvement
Address correspondence to Ken Simpson, School of Applied Management, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Private Bag 92-025, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: 0064-9-815-4321, ext. 7015; Fax: 0064-9-815-2927; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org