|ognizant Communication Corporation|
PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW
VOLUME 6, NUMBERS 3-4
Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 6, pp. 143-157
1088-4157/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Tourism and Silk Trade in Post-Civil War Cambodia
Heidi Dahles and Esther Zwart
Department of Culture, Organization and Management, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
In Cambodia, silk weaving is of tremendous economic and cultural significance, in particular for Khmer ethnic identity. With the opening of Cambodia to foreign investments and tourism, silk production is resumed, while silk products become more heterogeneous. Silk markets and NGO-sponsored shops in the capital city of Phnom Penh offer a wide variety of silk products of high as well as cheap quality, locally hand-made as well as manufactured, of Cambodian as well as foreign origin. The distinction between traditional, hand-made silk clothing and silk souvenirs of diverse origin and quality characterizes the silk trade and retail in the capital city. This article traces the origins of the silk products traded in Phnom Penh and maps the networks of producers and traders involved. The central question focuses on the role of tourism development in the transformation of the silk markets and, in particular, the consequences of these transformations for Khmer women and traditional Khmer craftsmanship in silk weaving.
Key words: Cambodia; Ethnic identity; Gender; Handicrafts; Silk markets; Souvenir trade
Address correspondence to Dr. Heidi Dahles, Professor of Organizational
Anthropology, Department of Culture, Organization and Management, Vrije
Universiteit Amsterdam, VU, COM, De Boelelaan 1081c, 1081 HV Amsterdam,
The Netherlands. Tel: 31-20-444-6734; Fax: 31-20-444-6860; E-mail: email@example.com
Determinants of Tourist Expenditure in Fiji: A Cointegration Approach
Paresh Kumar Narayan
Department of Economics, Monash University, Australia
Tourism is Fiji's largest industry in terms of foreign exchange earnings and employment creation. The industry earns around F$600 million per annum in foreign exchange, employs around 40,000 people, and tourist expenditure per capita is valued at around F$671. On the basis of this contribution, the industry is seen as a catalyst for economic development in Fiji; hence, it is imperative to understand the behavior of the industry. This article focuses on examining the determinants of tourist expenditure in Fiji. Using cointegration analysis and error correction models, the article finds that in the long run, real GDP in the country of origin impacts tourist spending in Fiji positively while prices and transport costs (airfares) have a negative effect. In the short run, coups d'êtat impact tourist expenditure negatively. It is envisaged that these results will help Fiji's policy makers and tourism industry stakeholders to understand the industry better.
Key words: Tourist expenditure; Cointegration; Error correction models; Fiji
Address correspondence to Paresh Kumar Narayan, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, P.O. Box 11E, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia. Tel: 61-03-9905-2480; Fax: 61-03-9905-5476; E-mail: Paresh.Narayan@BusEco.monash.edu.au
The Application of Regional Development Models in China and Australia for Tourism: A Comparative Study
Yan Zhang and Peter Murphy
School of Tourism & Hospitality, La Trobe University, Australia
Regional development based on tourism activity has been attempted in a variety of countries but its record has been mixed. Part of the reason may be that the economic theory behind such development is not appreciated by local decision makers. A basic question in this aspect is whether the classical development models are applicable in tourism today and whether they are applied in different regions. In this article, four economic development models of Western origin were selected to test whether they were being applied differently in Yunnan (P. R. China) and Victoria (Australia) by local decision makers. For that purpose, a questionnaire was designed to investigate the relevant ideas of local decision makers in both regions. Based on descriptive and statistical analyses, differences in the use of these models were identified between participants in Yunnan and Victoria, and the reasons explored. During the analysis, an overlap between the selected models was identified. More importantly, although China and Australia are so different, a consistent negative relationship was found between distance and cognitive metropolitan control and the concentration of growth in both countries. Therefore, the importance of distance to all four models and a possible interrelationship between these models are suggested as worthy of further exploration.
Key words: Product life cycle; Growth pole; Core-periphery; Gravity model; Perception; Decision makers; Regional tourism
Address correspondence to Yan Zhang, School of Tourism & Hospitality, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Tel: 61-03-9479-5029; Fax: 61-03-9479-1010; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org