ognizant Communication Corporation

PACIFIC TOURISM REVIEW

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 3, NUMBERS 1-2, 1999

Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 1-10, 1999
1088-4157/99 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Trap-Line-Based tours as Indigenous Tourism Products in Northern Canada*

J. W. Colton1 and T. D. Hinch2

1School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

The underlying purpose of this article is to explore selected challenges related to indigenous tourism development. Particular attention is given to the issues associated with the potential of packaging cultural tours based on the traditional and contemporary activity of trapping fur-bearing animals in the Boreal Forests of Northern Canada. Key issues include those related to: 1) the commoditization of culture, 2) the consumptive nature of trapping, and 3) differing cultural perspectives related to the role of the host. Insight into these issues is provided through informal interviews with and observations of native trappers from the Little Red River Cree First Nation in Northern Alberta.

Key words: Native tourism; Attractions; Indigenous; Culture; Product; Trapping

Address correspondence to J. W. Colton. Tel: (807) 343-8112; Fax: (807) 346-7836; E-mail: JColton@Mercury.Lakehead.ca

*An earlier version of this article was presented at the Trails in the Third Millennium Conference, Dec 2-5, 1997, Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.



Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 11-23, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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"Tiger on a Bicycle": The Growth, Character, and Dilemmas of International Tourism in Vietnam

Annabel Biles,1 Kate Lloyd,2 and William S. Logan1

1Deakin University, Burwood Campus, Australia
2Victoria University of Technology, Footscray Campus, Australia

In the 1990s renewed Western interest in Vietnam has led to a surge in tourist numbers. For many of the world's tourists Vietnam now represents a unique, exotic, and unexplored travel option, the new "Asian Adventure." Some elements of the Western media and business world have seen a new Asian tiger in the making. However, growth in international tourism to Vietnam, like the Vietnamese economy in general, has slowed down in the late 1990s and other commentators have, more hesitantly, likened Vietnam to a "tiger on a bicycle." This article investigates the approach to marketing Vietnam as an international tourist destination by Vietnamese tourism authorities and state-owned companies as well as foreign tourist companies. It identifies signs that the market is changing - perhaps declining - and asks what this means for Vietnamese tourism strategies. This article asks whether the current tourism marketing approach is attracting the "right kind" of tourists to Vietnam but also questions the extent to which the Vietnamese government - or, indeed, the government of any lesser developed country - could influence the character of the market.

Key words: Tourist marketing; Tourism development; Economic transition; Vietnam; Asian economic crisis

Address correspondence to Prof. William S. Logan, School of Australian and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, 3125 Australia. Tel: (03) 9244 3903; Fax: (03) 9244 6755; E-mail: wl@deakin.edu.au



Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 25-35, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tourism Impacts on Small Islands: A Longitudinal Study of Community Attitudes to Tourism on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Jack Carlsen

School of Marketing and Tourism, Faculty of Business, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup 6027, Perth, Western Australia

Tourism on small islands generates a range of social, economic, and environmental impacts that is becoming the focus of a growing number of islands tourism researchers, planners, and policymakers. Although the rate of development can vary greatly across islands, the impacts invariably manifest upon the island community at all stages of development. For this reason, it is necessary to consider a study of community impacts of tourism development over time. A longitudinal study has the potential to monitor the cumulative impacts of tourism development, instead of documenting the single sectoral impacts in a cross-sectional case study. Furthermore, the context in which tourism develops and the broader demographic, economic, and social forces that moderate tourism on small islands can be taken into account in longitudinal studies, providing some explanation of the change in community attitudes to tourism over time. This approach to monitoring tourism development on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands from the community perspective yields some useful insights for researchers, planners, and policymakers. It is apparent that, as the economic and social problems of unemployment and dependency on social security become more acute, the level of support for tourism development has increased. A number of development proposals have been approved in order to generate employment, income, and investment on the islands, but the social impacts of these developments need to be carefully monitored over time.

Key words: Small islands; Tourism impacts; Community attitudes; Longitudinal study

Address correspondence to Jack Carlsen. Tel: 61 08 9 4005698; Fax: 61 08 94005849; E-mail: j.carlsen@cowan.edu.au



Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 37-48, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Environmental Impacts of Tourism in the Australian Alps: The Thredbo River Valley

Justine Digance1 and Richard H. Norris2

1School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, QLD, 9726, Australia
2Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia

Water quality and the aquatic ecosystems of the Thredbo River have been the focus for environmental impacts of tourism, and several studies have assessed the river condition. The company managing the Thredbo Alpine resort in the upper part of the valley has implemented many changes in response to these studies. These include management of runoff from construction and the village operations, and upgrading the sewage treatment plant. Continuing assessment of aquatic ecosystems in the upper catchment indicate only minor impacts. Studies in the lower part of the river have not been as extensive, but indications are that substantial nutrient loads are contributed to the river that threaten the quality of Lake Jindabyne. Land uses, other than tourism, may be implicated.

Key words: Alpine National Park; Sustainable tourism; Water quality; Environmental impact

Address correspondence to Justine Digance. Tel: 61 7 5594 8755; Fax: 61 7 5594 8507; E-mail: J.Digance@mailbox.gu.edu.au



Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 49-60, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Visitors to National Parks: Attitudes of Walkers Toward Commercial Horseback Tours

Sue Beeton

School of Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, PO Box 6044, Shepparton, Victoria 3632, Australia

Horseback tourism is a niche adventure tourism activity that has received a great deal of pressure from conservation groups in relation to the impacts the activity has on the natural environment. Some of the criticism has at times tended towards the personal rather than grounded in physical evidence, creating an environment of personal conflict among recreational users. This led the author to question whether there were other forces at play, such as attitudinal ones. There has been no such research conducted in Australia, so a focused study was undertaken in a region of high emotional as well as environmental significance, the Victorian High Country. The study looked at the relationship between walkers and commercial horse riding groups. Results indicate that many walkers have negative attitudes towards horseback groups, often formed by a fear of the animals and notions of proprietorship, displayed through an unwillingness to share resources such as tracks and campsites. The implications of these findings for land managers are important and must be considered when managing public land use.

Key words: Public land use; Natural environment; Shared resources; Attitudinal conflicts; Horseback tourism

Address correspondence to Sue Beeton. Tel: (03) 58 332545; Fax: (03) 58 332521; E-mail: s.beeton@latrobe.edu.au



Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 61-67, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
 
 

How Do Scuba Diving Operators in Vanuatu Attempt to Minimize Their Impact on the Environment?

Jonathon L. Howard

Protected Area Management, Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University, PO Box 789, Albury NSW 2640, Australia

The Vanuatu government is aiming to maximize local participation in the tourism industry and to plan and implement tourism projects with explicit attention given to the conservation of the country's environmental and cultural heritage. This article provides an overview of the scuba diving operations in Vanuatu. It uses content analysis and operator and diver surveys to assess how the industry is minimizing its impact on the environment. It found operators were rotating dive sites and routes, providing predive briefings, and giving money to the custom owners. The divers were concerned and wanted to know more about Vanuatu's heritage, yet most could not nominate any impact they might be having. The study suggests that as there is a high motivation to learn by divers and a high level of environmental knowledge among operators, a more sustainable industry, and a better diver?operator relationship would exist if education/interpretation services were improved.

Key words: Scuba diving ; Vanuatu ; Sustainable tourism ; Environmental interpretation

Address correspondence to Jonathon Howard. Tel: 060519685; Fax: 060519897; E-mail: Jhoward@csu.edu.au



Pacific Tourism Review, Volume 3, pp. 71-84, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Antarctic Tourism: Activities, Impacts, Management Issues, and a Proposed Research Agenda

Peter A. Mason and Stephen J. Legg

Department of Management Systems, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Antarctica is one of the last tourism frontiers, but tourist numbers have been growing in the last decade and this is likely to continue into the next century. An increase in tourism is likely to lead to a greater impact on the fragile environment and greater demand for access to the historic sites of the continent. Tourists will also come more into contact with scientists on the only continent where scientific research has been, until recently, the main human activity. Little is known, however, about the long-term impacts of tourism on the physical environment, wildlife, huts, monuments, and scientific activity. This report provides the context for a discussion of this tourism growth. It reviews the political status of Antarctica, indicates the nature and impacts of tourist activity, and discusses important environmental management issues in relation to Antarctic tourism. The report suggests that Antarctica is entering a new era in its modern development; one in which tourism will be the main commercial activity on the continent. As little research into tourism has been conducted, the report also provides a research agenda for tourism studies in this new era of modern Antarctic development.

Key words: Antarctica ; Tourism activity ; Tourism impacts; Tourism management

Address correspondence to Peter A. Mason, College of Business, Department of Management Systems, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Tel: +64-6-350 5194; Fax: +64-6-350 5661.



Pacific Tourism Review, Vol. 3, pp. 101-118, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Vaka Pasifika: A Regional Approach to Tourism Training in the South Pacific Region

Peter M. Burns

Department of Tourism and Leisure, University of Luton, Park Square, Luton, Bedfordshire, LU1 3JU, UK

Field research undertaken in the region suggests that Pacific island nations would gain advantage by making collaborative efforts in training and education for tourism occupations. Evidence also indicates that while both the public and private sectors understand that human resources form the bedrock of successful tourism, they have yet to turn that understanding into implemented policy. Research in nine countries (Tonga, Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa, Kiribati, Tuvalu, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea) was undertaken during 1996. The methodology employed in the research was qualitative consisting mainly of extended interviews with hotel and resort managers, airline and travel industry executives, and public sector officials. In order to provide the necessary official picture, government archives and records were examined in the various countries. This article makes certain suggestions about regional cooperation but also makes the point that there is a need to decouple training paradigms from the international aid system and start to seek an answer that is framed by Vaka Pasifika (the Pacific Way).

Key words: South Pacific; Regionalism; Human resources development; Training; Hotel schools

Address correspondence to Dr. Peter M. Burns. Tel: (44) 1582 734111; Fax: (44) 1582 743400; E-mail: peter.burns@luton.ac.uk



Pacific Tourism Review, Vol. 3, pp. 119-131, 1999
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Wine Tourists: A Missed Opportunity or a Misplaced Priority?

Michael Beverland

Department of Applied Management, UNITEC: Institute of Technology, Carrington Road, Private Bag 92025, Auckland, New Zealand

The arguments for increased focus by vineyards on the development of wine tourism activities have received increased attention in the last 5 years. Wineries have often been criticized for not focusing enough attention on developing networks with tourist organizations, local governments, and cellar door/tourism activity in general. This approach views wine tourism as an intrinsic "good in itself" and ignores both the wider market context within which New Zealand wineries operate and the associated opportunity costs of developing wine tourism facilities. This research seeks to place wine tourism within the general market context in New Zealand. Based on the results of a cellar door survey and a set of qualitative interviews with key industry players, it is argued that although wine tourism can offer significant benefits for a firm, these benefits are always relative to what one can achieve via other means--and that wine tourism facilities are currently underdeveloped because wineries have more pressing needs, such as gaining access to key distribution channels. However, current demographic changes suggest that wine tourism activities will need to play an important part in the marketing strategy of the wine industry in the future.

Key words: Wine tourism; Benefits and hazards; New Zealand; Opportunity costs; Generation X

Address correspondence to Michael Beverland. Tel: 6498494180; Fax: 6498152927; E-mail mbeverland@unitec.ac.nz



Pacific Tourism Review, Vol. 3, pp. 133-142, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tourism as a Feasible Option for Sustainable Development in Small Island Developing States (SIDS): Nauru as a Case Study

Michael Fagence

Department of Geographical Sciences and Planning, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia

One of the strategies to achieve sustainable development that was advocated at the international meeting held in Barbados (1994) was for small island developing states (SIDS) to create a tourism product that would have appeal to international visitors. The underpinning premise was that all microstates would have the capacity to create a sustaining tourist industry. This article considers the case of the Pacific island of Nauru as a means of exploring the feasibility of such a proposition, with an examination of the tourism potential of the island and an assessment of its capacity to develop a tourism product with international appeal. The conclusion is that tourism cannot be considered as a realistic strategy to achieve sustainable development for all SIDS.

Key words: Microstates; Pacific islands; Nauru; Tourism; Sustainable development

Address correspondence to Michael Fagence. Fax: 61-7-3365-6899; E-mail: m.fagence@mailbox.uq.edu.au



Pacific Tourism Review, Vol. 3, pp. 143-150, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Accommodation Motivations and Accommodation Usage Patterns of International Independent Pleasure Travelers

Rose Johnston-Walker

Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand

In order to attract and satisfy customers, accommodation providers need to understand their guests in terms of the experiences they seek. This article focuses on a study that investigated the motivations and accommodation usage patterns of international independent pleasure travelers staying at hotels and bed and breakfasts (B&Bs) in Queenstown, New Zealand. A two-part methodology was employed, utilizing both informal guest interviews and a self-administered survey. The results indicated that B&B guests often exhibit a different range of motivations than hotel guests. In particular, the importance of experiential qualities of the accommodation offering was highlighted. A change in accommodation usage patterns was also suggested, involving decreased use of hotels coupled with increased patronage of B&B style accommodation.

Key words: Accommodation motivations; Experiential motivations; Accommodation usage patterns; Hotels; B&Bs

Address correspondence to Rose Johnston-Walker at her current address: 6 Todd Place, Ashburton, New Zealand; E-mail: rosie_johnson@hotmail.com



Pacific Tourism Review, Vol. 3, pp. 151-160, 1999
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"I Hated Mondays...": An Investigation of the Visitor Experience at the Otago Settlers Museum

Richard D. Mitchell

Centre for Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand

Heritage and nostalgia are becoming increasingly important as tourism products. Nowhere is this more evident than in museums, which continue to grow in number and diversity. Studies of museums, then, have become an important part of tourism and leisure literature. However, traditional studies (known as "visitor studies") have tended to ignore the role of the visitor in defining their own experience. This article presents the findings of research that applied a "behavioral approach" to the study of the Otago Settlers Museum (Dunedin, New Zealand). The study employed a qualitative, naturalistic methodology that utilized face-to-face interviews coupled with direct observation to draw directly on the experiences of the visitor. The study identified three main themes for the visitor experience at the Settlers Museum; these were: "connection to self," "education and learning," and "mindful outcome." Running through much of this is the notion that the visitor is undergoing a very personal nostalgic experience that draws on their unique past experiences.

Key words: Visitor experience; Museum; Behavioral approach; Nostalgia; Mindfulness; Experiential model

Address correspondence to Richard D. Mitchell. E-mail: rmitchell@commerce.otago.ac.nz



Pacific Tourism Review, Vol. 3, pp. 161-169, 1999
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Copyright © 1999 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Measuring Tourism Penetration in Small Islands*

Jerome L. McElroy1 and Klaus De Albuquerque2

1Department of Business and Economics, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556
2Department of Sociology, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424

Mass tourism development has been the postwar strategy of choice for many small islands. However, large-scale resorts and infrastructure development along delicate coastlines have caused irreversible ecological damage. One cause of the overrun has been inadequate comprehensive measurement of tourism's socioeconomic and environmental impacts, especially the absence of an early warning signal. This article applies the tourism penetration index developed in an earlier article to some 35 small (less than 1 million in population and 10,000 km2 in area) tropical islands around the world. The destinations are grouped into various levels of overall penetration using the index scores as well as through a cluster analysis using the same scores (unweighted). Results conform broadly to what is known from the literature. The most penetrated islands include the traditionally popular Caribbean resort islands (St. Maarten, Aruba, Caymans, US Virgins) plus Malta in the Mediterranean and the Northern Marianas in the Pacific. Many of these high-density destinations are cited in the literature as islands where the socioenvironmental costs of tourism are canceling out the economic benefits. The index also identifies a cluster of islands approaching high-density status (Anguilla, Antigua, and Guam). The least penetrated islands include remote Indian and Pacific Ocean destinations of Comoros and Reunion and Tonga, Samoa, Tuvalu and Kiribati. The major weaknesses of the index are discussed. They include the failure to account for important geographic and seasonal concentrations of visitors and the failure to account for the time dimension of tourism development on a particular society.

Key words: Islands; Caribbean; Pacific; Mediterranean; Indian; Atlantic; Tourism penetration

Address correspondence to Jerome L. McElroy. E-mail: jmcelroy@saintmarys.edu

*An earlier version of this article was presented to the 23rd Annual Caribbean Studies Association Meeting, St. John's, Antigua (May 26-30, 1998).