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TECHNOLOGY
A Journal of Science Serving Legislative, Regulatory, and Judicial Systems
Human Advancement · Environmental Protection  · Industrial Development
 

ABSTRACTS
Volume 8, Numbers 1-3

Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 7-26
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Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The State of Marine Pollution in Kuwait: Northern Arabian Gulf

A. N. Al-Ghadban,1 N. AL-Majed,2 and S. Al-Muzaini1

1Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait
2Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, Safat 13104, Kuwait

The coastal area in Kuwait is impacted to various degrees by several pollutants. The effect of dredging and land reclamation activities is leading to the partial or total loss of the upper intertidal areas, the loss of the ecosystem, and the death or migration of the inhabitants of the affected areas. The different pollutants discharged into the marine environment are: oil, petroleum hydrocarbons, trace metals, suspended particles; and nutrients such as sulphates, nitrates, and phosphates. Residual chlorine, phosphate, temperature, and increased levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are considered as indirect pollutants or indicators. The probable sources of these pollutants include oil and petrochemical industry (Shuaiba Complex), power plants, and sewage and oil export activities. Cooling and process water contribute 22% of the load, and sewage 42%. The power plants are generating water with 5°C over the ambient water temperature. However, it is diluted by return water that brings it down to 1°C. The water discharged in connection to oil export is the ballast water that is the subject of control by the Regional Organization for the Protection of Marine Environment (ROPME) for the whole region. A wastewater treatment plant will be built to receive all water from the industry and sewage from the area for treatment with the objective of using the water for irrigation and afforestation. It would also drop the BOD to less than 2% of the original figure. The quantity of sewage water would drop to 25% of the original load. The same options are anticipated for the total suspended particles, nitrates, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorous compounds. The discharge of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds to the Gulf--including Kuwait Bay--is probably more important due to the poor flushing of Kuwait Bay, and this problem will also be reduced by the sewage treatment plants.

Key words: Marine pollution; Arabian Gulf; Land reclamation; Oil; Petroleum hydrocarbons; Trace metals

Address correspondence to A. N. Al-Ghadban, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait. E-mail: aghadban@safat.kisr.edu.kw




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 27-38
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Recent Trace Metal Levels in Coastal Waters of Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait

M. A. Al-Sarawi,1 M. S. Massoud,1 S. R. Khader,2 and A. H. Bou-Olyan2

1Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, 13104 Safat, Kuwait
2Department of Geology and Chemistry, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat, Kuwait

Trace metal analyses were made on 96 subsamples representing the water (liquid) and particulate (solid) forms of 48 seawater samples collected in June 1995 and January 1996 from Sulaibikhat Bay. The mean concentrations of the dissolved species were as follows: copper 4.23 mg L-1, iron 100.0 mg L-1, zinc 36.11 mg L-1, nickel 0.8 mg L-1, lead 2.02 mg L-1, vanadium 14.5 mg L-1, chromium 1.16 mg L-1, and manganese 2.6 mg L-1. Mean concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, and Mn in the particulate matter were 90.5, 28,000, 351.4, 37.3, 70.4, 98.5, 152.3, and 54.8 mg g-1, respectively. Seasonal variations were recorded in all analyzed subsamples with most of the trace metals exhibiting much higher concentrations in early summer. Results were also compared with earlier studies carried out on the trace metal content of fresh and coastal waters in the region including the study area. The surface waters of the Bay, which were unpolluted 16 years ago, are currently enriched with Zn and V. The marked differences between the trace metal partitioning in the fresh water of Shatt Al-Arab River and the marine water of Sulaibikhat Bay were ascribed to the strong widespread aeolian signal in the northern Arabian Gulf and the remobilization of several trace metals under anoxic conditions from bottom sediments throughout Kuwait Bay.

Key words: Trace metals; Coastal waters; Sulaibikhat Bay

Address correspondence to M. S. Massoud, Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, 13104 Safat, Kuwait. Tel: (00965) 482-0580/0590; Fax: (965) 482-0570.




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 39-50
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Recent Trace Metal Pollution in Bottom Sediments of Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait

M. A. Al-Sarawi,1 M. S. Massoud,1 and S. R. Khader2

1Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, 13104 Safat, Kuwait
2Department of Geology, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat, Kuwait

The recent state of trace metal pollution in bottom sediments of Sulaibikhat Bay was assessed through the measurement of eight trace metals in 48 composite sediment subsamples representing 144 grab (surface) sediment samples collected from the Bay in June 1995 and January 1996. The trace metal contents of these marine sediments were as follows: copper 26.98 mg g-1, Fe 24,900 mg g-1, Zn 73.5 mg g-1, Ni 12.95 mg g-1, Pb 5.6 mg g-1, V 67.87 mg g-1, Cr 55.6 mg g-1, and Mn 187.4 mg g-1. These results were compared with earlier studies carried out on trace metal pollution in bottom sediments of the northern Gulf region, including the study area. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, and Mn in sediments at the bottom of Sulaibikhat Bay were all within their natural background levels. However, the bottom sediments of the northern, eastern, southern, and north- and southwestern parts were heavily polluted with Cu, Zn, Fe, and V at the time of the present study. Also, the bottom sediments of the central part, which were unpolluted 16 years ago, were now polluted with the widespread Fe and V pollutants. Diversified natural and anthropogenic inputs may have provided the sources of this pollution.

Key words: Trace metals; Pollution; Bottom sediments; Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait

Address correspondence to M. S. Massoud, Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, 13104 Safat, Kuwait. Tel: (00965) 482-0580/0590; Fax: (965) 482-0570.




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 51-54
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Sewage Discharge Impact on the Development of the Shuwaikh Area

Saleh Al-Muzaini

Environmental Sciences Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, 13109, Kuwait

A field study was carried out involving 11 fixed stations at high tide and 6 stations at low tide. The sampling location was selected to cover the distribution of the pollutants in the Shuwaikh area. At high tide NO2-1, NO3-1, and NH3 values ranged from 11 to 25 mg/kg, 4.1 to 6.4 mg/kg, and 1.2 to 2.4 mg/kg, respectively. The PO4-3, S-2, and SO4-2 values were 0.9 to 1.8 mg/kg, 0.23 to 0.5 mg/kg, and 38 to 53 mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and oil ranged from 30 to 116 mg/kg, 742 to 998 mg/kg, 24 to 34 mg/kg, and 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. At low tide NO2-1, NO3-1, NH3, PO4-3, S-2, and SO4-3 were 11 to 25 mg/kg, 4.1 to 6.4 mg/kg, 1.2 to 2.4 mg/kg, 0.9 to 1.8 mg/kg, 0.23 to 0.5 mg/kg, and 38 to 53 mg/kg, respectively. The results of BOD, COD, TOC, and oil ranged from 30 to 116 mg/kg, 742 to 998 mg/kg, 24 to 43 mg/kg, and 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. The results of the physical and chemical parameters for both high and low tides are relatively high due to sewage discharge. The pollution is higher near the sewage discharge point and decreases with distance. The study suggested that a biological wastewater treatment is recommended to remove pollutants before discharge. Also, the study revealed that the physical and chemical assay provides effective assessment of water quality such as the Shuwaikh marine area.

Key words: Sewage discharge; Water quality; Shuwaikh marine area

Address correspondence to Saleh Al-Muzaini, Environmental Sciences Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, 13109, Kuwait. Tel: 00975 4818 712; Fax: 00965 4845 350.




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 55-63
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A Status Report on Wastewater at a Large Petroleum Facility

Saleh Al Muzaini

Environmental Sciences Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait 13100

The Shuaiba Industrial Area (SIA) is the first industrial complex in Kuwait, and is considered the largest industrial area in the Arabian Gulf. Presently, there are 12 major industries, including: two petrochemical companies; three refineries; two power plants; and an industrial gas corporation. They generate some 23,000 m3/day of industrial wastewater--which is discharged directly into the Arabian Gulf without extensive treatment--in addition to 3000 m3/day of sanitary wastewater. Future expansion of the refineries and secondary industries in the area will result in greater pollution of the seawater, and thus will affect the quality of the seawater. Several approaches are in practice to reduce waste generated by these industries. This article presents methods of treating industrial pollutants by SIA refineries and petrochemicals.

Key words: Industrial wastewater; Kuwait; Sanitary wastewater; Shuaiba Area Authority

Address correspondence to Saleh Al-Muzaini, Department Manager, Environmental Sciences Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat, Kuwait 13100. Tel: 00975 4818 712; Fax: 00965 4845 350




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 65-77
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Environmental Impact Assessment of the Oil Sector Complex Construction Works Offshore Al-Shuwaikh Coast, Kuwait, II. Quality and Mercury Content of Ambient Air Before Construction

M. A. Al-Sarawi, M. S. Massoud, F. Al-Thoweini, and A. Abdulrassol

Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, 13104 Safat, Kuwait

Air quality field measurements taken every hour by two mobile labs over a period of 2 months in mid-1998 have shown that the average concentrations of the principle air pollutants are all within the limits defined by the relevant ambient air quality standards (AAQSs), thus indicating the good quality of the ambient air in the proposed Oil Sector Complex project area on Al-Shuwaikh coast, at least during the period of measurements. However, relatively high intermittent and spatial variations were recorded in the nonmethane hydorcarbons (n-CH4), NOx, CO, H2S, and SO2 emissions and were attributed to diversified sources. Also, some air pollutants, such as H2S, NOx, n-CH4, and CO, were found to produce higher emissions during nighttime, probably due to the wide spreading of unpleasant odors from nearby seawage works and the formation of a thermal inversion layer in the coastal area under study overnight. Concentration levels of mercury in all air (particulate matter) samples are quite low and far below the AAQS limit of this pollutant, and hence the ambient air in Al-Shuwaikh coastal area (including the area under study) can be regarded as currently unpolluted with mercury.

Key words: Ambient air quality; Mercury; Environmental impact assessment; Oil Sector Complex

Address correspondence to M. S. Massoud, Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, 13104 Safat, Kuwait. Tel: (00965) 482-0580/0590; Fax: 011-965-482-0570.




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 79-87
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Bench-Scale Composting of Some Salt Tolerant Plants

M. F. Hamoda and H. A. Abu Qdais

Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait

The aerobic composting of five salt-tolerant plants with salt content ranging from 50 to 500 g total dissolved solids/kg dry matter was carried out in bench-scale reactors at 40°C and 15-day detention time for mixtures with each of mature compost, municipal solid waste, and vegetable waste. The data obtained showed that the biodegradability of the mixtures of plants and organic wastes followed a first-order kinetic pattern, but the organic matter reduction decreased progressively with increased salt content of the plants. Stabilization of the salt-tolerant plants by composting proved to be feasible, provided that the plants are mixed with appropriate organic residues to reduce the water content, improve the C/N ratio, and avoid collapse of the composting biomass.

Key words: Aerobic composting; Salt-tolerant plants; Bench-scale reactors

Address correspondence to M. F. Hamoda, Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait. E-mail: hamoda@civil.kuniv.edu.kw




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 89-94
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Ambient Lead Concentration in the Parking Area of Khaldia Campus, Kuwait University

Y. Makdisi and H. R. Saad

Physics Department, Kuwait University, Kuwait

Ambient lead concentration was measured at the exit of the parking area of the Khaldia Campus (KhC), Kuwait University (KU). High-volume air sampler of 10 mm inlet was used in sample collections. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to analyze the collected particulate matter on lead-free filter papers. The study was concerned with the variation of lead concentrations during the working hours of 8:00 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. A remarkable increase in lead concentrations was reported at the break times between lectures because of the rush of students' cars in their movement to other faculties and campuses. Factors such as the distribution of the classrooms in KhC, the nearby airport highway, and the parking of students' cars in the surrounding street augment the lead exposure of students from this site averaged to about 10 mg weekly. This amounts to about 400 mg per academic year. The variation of ambient lead concentration with height was also measured. The contribution to lead concentration from nonuniversity cars running the surrounding streets was estimated to be about 17% of the measured ALC values. Also, it was found that humidity increases the lead concentration to remarkable values.

Key words: Lead exposure; Ambient concentration; Motor vehicle exhaust; Kuwait; Parking areas

Address correspondence to H. R. Saad, Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait. E-mail: HRSaad@kuc01.kuniv.edu.kw




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 95-97
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Work Environment in Kuwait National Petroleum Company

Talal F. Al-Azimi

Environment Public Authority, Kuwait

A study was conducted to assess the existing work environment in the Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC), the premier subsidiary of the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, which is wholly owned by the Government of Kuwait. In this article, an attempt is made to assess the existing work environment by using those criteria that are reported to be most commonly used to measure the work environment of an organization including: hard work, receptiveness to new ideas, straightforwardness with each other, respect towards authority, team spirit, willingness to take risk, flexibility for working in cross section areas, work efficiency, dedication towards work, and impartiality. The result of the study indicates that KNPC has a good work environment and that it is a successful organization because its work is done effectively, quality is better, and cost is low.

Key words: Work environment; Kuwait National Petroleum Company

Address correspondence to Talal F. Al-Azimi, Environment Public Authority, P.O. Box 24395, Safat 13104, Kuwait.




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 99-105
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Nutrient Variation in the Aquatic System of the Suez Bay

Amin M. Abdallah,1 Mohamed I. El-Samra,2 and Mohamed A. Hamed2

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mansoura, 35516, P.O. Box 30 Mansoura, Egypt
2The National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Aqaba and Suez Gulfs Branch, Egypt

Nutrient salts in the water of the area between the Suez Bay and the Suez Canal were studied. The results showed that the west coast of the bay is richer in nutrient salts, to be followed in decreasing order by the northwest part, and the east coast, probably due to the disposal of sewage and industrial discharges in the western and northwestern regions of the bay. The inshore water contained 5.75 mg N/L of ammonia, 0.77 mg N/L of nitrite, 2.38 mg N/L of nitrate, and 1.49 mg P/L of phosphate. The corresponding concentrations in the offshore water were 0.76 mg N/L of ammonia, 0.21 mg N/L of nitrite, 0.75 mg N/L of nitrate, and 0.21 mg P/L of phosphate.

Key words: Nutrient salts; Aquatic system; Suez Bay; Suez Canal

Address correspondence to Amin M. Abdallah, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mansoura, 35516, P.O. Box 30, Mansoura, Egypt. Tel: 00204 3310414; Fax: 00205 346781; abdallahamin@hotmail.com




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 107-111
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Biodegradation of Gas Oil by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Zeinab H. Kheiralla and Abeer A. Rushdy

Botany Department, Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

The biodegradation of gas oil n-alkane hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined in situ under incubation temperature of 37°C. The degree of n-alkane biodegradation was determined by gas chromatography and found to be affected by the incubation times. The total n-alkane consumptions were 39% and 42% after 10 and 20 days of incubation time, respectively. The biodegradation of the investigated gas oil n-alkanes by P. aeruginosa in the presence of chemical dispersant H.KH910 showed higher rates to reach 6% and 48% more than the controls. In another experiment, P. aeruginosa was subjected to different doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 krad). The increase in radiation doses up to 6 krad caused effective increases in n-alkane biodegradation, which reached 54% and 73% either after 10 or 20 days of incubation time, respectively. Therefore, the mutants of P. aeruginosa were capable for hyperproduction of biosurfactant from gas oil n-alkanes under investigation. The mutants showed nearly 1.5 times more hydrocarbon utilization compared with that obtained by the parent organism under the same incubation times.

Key words: Biodegradation; Gas oil; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Chemical dispersant; Gamma ray

Address correspondence to Zeinab H. Kheiralla, Botany Department, Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Tel: (202) 275-1887; Fax: (202) 415-7804; E-mail: kheirall@hjotmail.com




Technology, Vol. 8, pp. 133-121
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An Energy Management Assessment for the Gulf Region

Mohsen M. Aboul-Naga

Department of Design, Dubai University College, P.O. Box 14143, Dubai, UAE.

This article describes the importance of the architectural design of buildings for comfort. It illustrates the significance of consideration of energy conservation during the refurbishing of buildings. It identifies buildings in Europe that have been refurbished in accordance with appropriate environmental requirements, notably energy conservation. The article examines the status of buildings in the UAE from the smart and energy features point of view. The assessment of the selected buildings demonstrates how energy efficiency upgrades lead to a decreased demand for energy, greater comfort, and a cleaner environment. The conclusions of the study are limited to buildings in hot climates.

Key words: Energy management; Architectural design; Energy efficiency; Building refurbishing

Address correspondence to Dr. Mohsen M. Aboul-Naga, Department of Design, Dubai University College, P.O. Box 14143, Dubai, UAE. Tel: +971-4-2242472/2270610; Fax: +971-4-2242151; E-mail: mnaga@duc.ac.ae