ognizant Communication Corporation

TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
Proceedings of the National Academy of InventorsT

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1

Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 5-12, 2010
1949-8241/10 $90.00 + 00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12741230805227
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Commentary
Creating Customer Value Through Innovation

Len Polizzotto

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA

Innovation is critical to the competitiveness of any organization, and competitiveness is critical to an organization's survival, as well as for our nation in an increasingly competitive global environment. To be innovative, organizations must have a disciplined process that is well understood and fully endorsed by their entire membership and employ a process that affects how it interacts with customers, focuses internal investments, and forms partnerships. This article discusses the principles and drivers of innovation, and the disciplines necessary for successful innovation. Simply put, innovation is the creation and delivery of sustainable new customer value put into use. This article presents an example of how we at Draper Laboratory leveraged innovation, collaboration tools, and processes to establish a new energy business. We identified a need, partnered with Progress Energy Florida, and are now developing a custom, low-cost thermogravimetric analyzer that will be suitable for commercialization with a high value proposition. And in the process, we have partners for its manufacture and distribution, an initial customer, and the beginnings of research for the next-generation product. We have assembled a full spectrum of capabilities from the partners that enable us to address the multiple aspects of the problem in a high-value way.

Key words: Innovation; Real value; Value BalanceTM; Competition; Stakeholders

Address correspondence to Dr. Len Polizzotto, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02130, USA. Tel: 617-258-4624; Fax: 617-258-2626; E-mail: lpolizzotto@draper.com




Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 13-20, 2010
1949-8241/10 $90.00 + 00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12741230805308
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Commentary
Encouraging the Art of Medicine: The University of South Florida's Brief to the United States Supreme Court in Bilski V. Kappos

Jeff Lloyd and Joshua R. Brown

Saliwanchik, Lloyd & Saliwanchik, Gainesville, FL, USA

In August 2009, the University of South Florida filed an amicus brief in the case Bilski v. Kappos pending before the United States Supreme Court. The brief argues for a broader interpretation of patent eligible subject matter than that put forward by the Federal Circuit in its lower court decision. Specifically, the brief argues that methods of diagnosis and treatment, potentially excluded under the Federal Circuit's ruling, were among the "useful Arts" the Framers of the Constitution intended to protect when they adopted the constitutional provision granting Congress the power to establish the patent system. The Supreme Court heard oral arguments in the Bilski case on November 9, 2009. A decision is expected from the Court any day now. The text of the brief is provided.

Key words: Patent law; Medicine; Methods of diagnosis and treatment; United States Supreme Court; Bilski v. Kappos; Patent eligible subject matter

Address correspondence to Jeff Lloyd, Saliwanchik, Lloyd & Saliwanchik, P.O. Box 142950, Gainesville, FL 32614-2950, USA. Tel: 352-375-8100; Fax: 352-372-5800; E-mail: jl@slspatents.com




Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 21-28, 2010
1949-8241/10 $90.00 + 00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12741230805263
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Commentary
The Case for an Ethics Research Consortium for Emerging Technologies: Public Perception of Stem Cell Research and Development

Cesar V. Borlongan,1 Camille McWhirter,1 Caroline Fultz-Carver,1 Kevin T. FitzGerald,2 and Paul R. Sanberg1

1Office of Research and Innovation and Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
2Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA

Emerging technologies have gained notoriety as a catalyst of socioeconomic progress, but have also inspired a revolution in ethics. Here, we provide an overview of ethics in stem cell-based therapies and offer a compelling argument for a need to establish an Ethics Research Consortium that will be tasked to assemble an interdisciplinary panel of experts who will apply ethical principles to analyze the social merit relative to the economic incentives of this emerging technology. Milestone studies on cell therapy in Parkinson's disease and stroke over the last two decades were the focus of this commentary. The major criterion for study selection was based on public opinion, scientific discussion, and government reactions generated by these pioneering studies. Original data from the selected studies are presented. Interpretation and discussion of data captured the prevailing views of the public and scientific community, as well as the government regulatory and oversight decisions (i.e., ban on embryonic stem cell research funding). Lessons learned from two decades of cell-based therapies indicate that poor management of the public discourse of ethics concerning emerging technologies might have contributed to misperceptions within both the public and the research community that have hindered the progress of scientific innovation and even delayed the clinical application of potentially life-saving treatments to critically ill patients. We propose the creation of a Consortium that will evaluate how these novel ethical issues in emerging technologies are addressed under current oversight and regulatory structures and where there may be gaps and need for revised or new public policy approaches.

Key words: Ethics; Embryonic stem cells; Adult stem cells; Transplantation

Address correspondence to Cesar V. Borlongan, Ph.D., Professor and Vice-Chairman for Research, Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Tel: 813-974-3154; Fax: 813-974-3078; E-mail: cborlong@health.usf.edu




Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 29-54, 2010
1949-8241/10 $90.00 + 00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12741230805182
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review
Innovations in the Use of Biomaterials for Treating Brain Disease

Dwaine F. Emerich1* and Gorka Orive2,3,4*

1InCytu, Inc., Lincoln, RI, USA
2Laboratory of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
3Biotechnology Institute (BTI), Instituto Eduardo Anitua, Vitoria, Spain
4Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain

Current therapies have limited or no capacity to restore lost function, slow ongoing neurodegeneration, or promote regeneration following damage to the brain. Biomaterials are playing an increasingly important role in the development of novel, potentially efficacious approaches to brain treatment and repair. Programmable biomaterials enable and augment the targeted delivery of drugs into the brain and allow cell/tissue transplants to be effectively delivered and integrate into the brain, to serve as delivery vehicles for therapeutic proteins, and rebuild damaged circuits. Similarly, biomaterials are being increasingly used to recapitulate specific aspects of brain niches to promote regeneration and/or repair damaged neuronal pathways with stem cell therapies. Many of these approaches are gaining momentum because nanotechnology allows greater control over material-cell interactions that induce specific developmental processes and cellular responses including differentiation, migration, and outgrowth. This review discusses the state of the art and new directions in the use of biomaterial science in the treatment of brain diseases.

Key words: Biomaterials; Central nervous system; Polymer; Stem cells

Address correspondence to Dr. Dwaine Emerich, Vice President of Research and Development, Chief Scientific Officer, InCytu, Inc., 701 George Washington Highway, Lincoln, RI 02865, USA. Tel: 401-499-6662; Fax: 401-823-0466; E-mail: ED3FJM@aol.com

*Drs. Emerich and Orive contributed equally to the preparation of this manuscript.




Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 55-70, 2010
1949-8241/10 $90.00 + 00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12741230805344
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Nanosystems Utilizing Three-Dimensional Integration and Gas Dielectrics for Enhanced System Performance

Thomas E. Wade1 and Ronald J. Gutmann2

1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
2Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA

Nanoelectronic systems utilizing three-dimensional (3D) integration is an emerging technology that vertically stacks and interconnects multiple materials, technologies, and functional components to form highly integrated micro/nanosystems. This article introduces the concept of utilizing gas dielectrics in 3D integrated systems having a dielectric constant close to unity in order to considerably enhance system performance.

Key words: Three-dimensional integration; Gas dielectrics; Micro/nanoelectronics; IC interconnect; Three-dimensional integrated circuits

Address correspondence to Thomas E. Wade, Ph.D., 5316 Witham Court, Tampa, FL 33647, USA. Tel: 813-974-4779; Fax: 813-974-5250; E-mail: twade@usf.edu or wade@eng.usf.edu




Technology and Innovation, Vol. 12, pp. 71-78, 2010
1949-8241/10 $90.00 + 00
DOI: 10.3727/194982410X12741230805380
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Use of Model Compounds to Study Removal of Pharmaceuticals Using Octolig®

Wen-Shan Chang, Dean F. Martin, and Meagan Small

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

The possibility of removing certain pharmaceuticals from wastewater was tested using Octolig®, a commercially available material with polyethyldiamine moieties covalently attached to high-surface area silica gel. Selected drugs and drug models were subjected to column chromatography for removal by means of ion encapsulation, the effectiveness of which would depend upon having appropriate anionic functional groups. Removal of methylene blue with quaternary ammonium groups was (statistically) unsuccessful. In contrast, complete success was attained for removal of each of three xanthenylbenzenes (rose bengal, eosin Y, erythrosine) that have both phenolic and carboxylic acid groups, as is the case with two of the top five prescribed drugs in the US.

Key words: Pharmaceuticals; Xanthenylbenzenes; Octolig®; Encapsulation

Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler, Tampa, Fl 33620-5250, USA. Tel: (813) 974-2374; Fax: (813) 974-3203; E-mail: dfmartin@usf.e