|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 1
Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 1,
1544-273X/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Estimating the Economic Contribution of a Cruise Ship Visit
Larry Dwyer,1 Ngaire Douglas,2 and Zelko Livaic3
1School of Economics, University of
New South Wales, NSW 2052
2School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2477
3Sydney Graduate School of Management, PO Box 6145, Parramatta Delivery Centre NSW 2150
The international cruise industry has consistently recorded an average annual growth rate of 8.4% since 1980 with the fastest growth happening in the last decade. However, while the domestic market is small--some 50,000 Australians take a cruise annually--Australia's cruise potential lies in the growing international recognition as a safe, interesting destination. Measuring the economic impact of a cruise ship's visit is a challenging task. Consideration must be given to whether it is a port of embarkation/disembarkation or a port of call only, and the facilities and infrastructure available for both ship operations and passenger needs. This article provides estimates of cruise-related expenditure using data for Cairns in Far North Queensland. A framework for classifying cruise-related expenditure is developed. This framework can be used to estimate the economic impacts on Cairns of cruise tourism and, depending on data quality, can be used to estimate the net benefits to Cairns from this special interest visitor market. The framework is, in principle, capable of application to estimate the economic impacts of cruise tourism in any port of call.
Key words: Cruise tourism; Economic impacts; Australia
Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer, Ph.D., Qantas Professor of Travel and Tourism Economics, School of Economics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052. Tel: +61 2 9385 2636; Fax: + 61 2 9313 6337, E-mail: email@example.com
Why Dolphins May Get Ulcers: Considering the Impacts of Cetacean-Based Tourism in New Zealand*
Coastal-Marine Research Group, Massey University at Albany, North Shore MSC, New Zealand
The growth of tourism based upon cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) has been relatively recent--but spectacular. Thus, these marine mammals have now become valuable as a tourism resource. Accompanying this growth are concerns regarding the potential impacts on "target" species. In New Zealand, marine mammal tourism has grown rapidly and a variety of studies have shown that dolphins and whales are affected by these activities. However, these impacts vary greatly with the species, location, and type of tourism activity. Thus, these studies show, not surprisingly, that generic management regimes are seldom appropriate. It can be concluded from what has been learned in the New Zealand situation that sound management of marine mammal tourism must be based on solid research that provides information regarding the needs and sensitivities of specific species and particular locations. A conservative approach is essential given the difficulties in accurately assessing the long-term implications of this growing industry for cetaceans.
Key words: Cetaceans; Dolphins; Whale watching; Ecotourism; Stress
Address correspondence to Mark Orams, Coastal-Marine Research Group, Massey University at Albany, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore MSC, New Zealand. Tel: (64 9) 414 0800; Fax: (64 9) 441 8109; E-mail: M.B.Orams@massey.ac.nz
*Title derived from Robert Sapolsky's (1994) Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers. A Guide to Stress, Stress Related Diseases, and Coping.
Marine Tourism Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef
Vicki J. Harriott
School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW, Australia CRC Reef Research Centre, P.O. Box 772, Townsville, Qld., Australia
About 1.6 million tourists visit the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) each year. Tourism on the reef and adjacent coast is worth over Aus$4 billion per year and employs over 47,000 people. While sustainable tourism is a goal of management of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, tourism has some negative environmental and social impacts on the reef and coastal environment. Australian residents who were surveyed ranked the impacts of reef tourism highly as a threat to the GBR. In contrast, a sample of people with professional experience in reef environmental issues ranked reef tourism as a much smaller threat than other widespread impacts such as coral bleaching, agricultural runoff, and fishing. This study reviews the impact of the major components of marine tourism on the GBR and tourism management, and concludes that reef tourism produces generally localized impacts and is intensively managed on the GBR relative to other reef uses. Industry and management agencies have included education of reef visitors and tourism staff as part of a planned framework for sustainable tourism and recreation, and this education program should include promotion of a greater understanding of reef environmental issues.
Key words: Great Barrier Reef; Marine tourism; Impacts
Address correspondence to Vicki J. Harriott, School of Environmental Science and Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW, Australia. Tel: 61 2 66203772; Fax: 61 2 66212669; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
No Detectable Improvement in Compliance to Regulations by "Swim-With-Dolphin" Operators in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia
Carol Scarpaci,1 Dayanthi Nugegoda,1 and Peter J. Corkeron2
1RMIT University, Australia, School
of Applied Science, Bundoora Campus, GPO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
2Norwegian Institute of Marine Research Tromsø, Sykehusveien 23, N-9291 Tromsø, Norway
This article reports on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. The objective of this study was to compare if the level of compliance to three conditions (approach type, swim time, and time in proximity to dolphins) in the tour operators' permits changed after state government conducted a review on the existing operators. An additional fourth condition (number of swimmers participating in a dolphin-swim) was also studied. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips from September 1998-April 1999 and September 1999-April 2000 (prereview) and 16 commercial dolphin-swim trips from February-March 2002 and January 2003 (postreview) were studied. Data were collected using 1-minute scan samples and continuous observations from all three operating human-dolphin-swim tourist vessels. There was no detectable change in the level of compliance for rules regarding the way boats approached dolphins, their time in the proximity of dolphins, and the length of time people swam with dolphins. Operators always complied with regulations regarding the number of people participating in a dolphin-swim. Investigations of the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans have tended to ignore whether tourist vessels obey existing regulations. This study demonstrates that compliance cannot be assumed, and that operators appear to comply better with conditions that are easily quantified. Further, studies are needed to determine the statistical power required to detect changes in tour operator behavior to conditions in their permits. This will inform agencies whether the changes they have implemented to improve compliance levels are actually working.
Key words: Compliance; Swim-with-dolphin operations; Tursiops sp.
Address correspondence to Carol Scarpaci at her current address: Victoria University of Technology, Science and Biotechnology, PO Box 14428 (W107), MCMC, Australia, 8001. Tel: + 61 3 9216 8138; Fax: +61 3 9216 8183; E-mail: email@example.com
Sustainable Management of Marine Fishing Tourism. Some Lessons From Norway
Norut Social Science Research, 9294 Tromsø, Norway
Marine tourism often introduces new interest groups in highly concentrated marine environments. This may cause conflicts and raise new management challenges. However, due to the lack of systematic research on marine tourism it is often difficult to solve conflicts and guide sustainable management. This article presents issues and models that are of relevance in securing sustainable management of one particular type of marine tourism: recreational fishing. The article points to the importance of applying a multidisciplinary approach in the management of marine fishing tourism.
Key words: Sustainable management; Coastal tourism; Marine fishing tourism; Recreational fishing
Address correspondence to Trude Borch, Norut Social Science Research, 9294 Tromsø, Norway. Tel: +47 77629466; Fax: +47 77629461; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org