|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2
Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 1,
No. 2, pp. 71-87
1544-273X/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Understanding Great Barrier Reef Visitors: Segmentation According to Reef Trip Benefits
Laurie Murphy and Anne Norris
Tourism Program, James Cook University, Douglas Campus, Townsville Q 4811, Australia
Previous studies of visitors to Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) reveal that, for some, a visit to the reef is an active learning experience, while for others it is merely a chance to relax or socialize in a pleasant natural setting. The aim of this study was to further explore these findings by conducting a detailed benefit-based segmentation study of tourists on commercial tours to the reef. The resulting segments differed with respect to the desired level of active involvement with the reef and the desire for information and learning. Dive Learners (n = 442) exhibited the greatest desire for a hands-on reef learning experience, while Nature Learners (n = 613) showed a preference for a more passive reef learning experience. In contrast, the Nature Relaxers (n = 345) and Nature Family Visitors (n = 411) were more interested in a relaxing and/or social reef experience. Visitor management implications are discussed.
Key words: Marine tourism; Great Barrier
Reef; Benefit segmentation
Address correspondence to Dr. Laurie Murphy, Tourism Program, James Cook University, Douglas Campus, Townsville Q 4811, Australia. Tel: 61 747814347; Fax: 61 847814019; E-mail: Laurie.Murphy@jcu.edu.au
Tourists Swimming With Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus Pusillus) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia: Are Tourists at Risk?
C. Scarpaci,1 D. Nugegoda,1 and P. J. Corkeron2
1RMIT University, Australia, Department
of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Bundoora Campus, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne,
2Norwegian Institute of Marine Research Tromsø, Sykehusveien 23, N-9291 Tromsø, Norway
The public desire to interact with marine mammals has resulted in the development of a billion dollar tourism industry that includes activities such as humans swimming with free-ranging dolphins and seals. This study monitors the behavior of the seal-swim industry in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia and is believed to be the first descriptive account of tourists swimming with free-ranging seals. Data were collected on 51 groups of people swimming with seals. These observations were made onboard dolphin/swim vessels (N = 36) or a research vessel (N = 9) using 1-min scan samples and continuous observations. Results from this study indicated that tour vessels accounted for the majority of human interaction with seals. From a total of 51 swims, two seal-swim strategies were observed: the free swim (53%) and rope swim (47%). The median swim time with seals was found to be significantly longer than dolphin swims. The mean number of swimmers participating in a seal swim was 7.5 and the mean number of boats present during a seal swim was 1.1. The distance maintained by tour vessels from the seal structure significantly increased as boat traffic increased. The results also indicate that operator behavior was not significantly affected by the presence of a researcher onboard tour vessels. This study examines the behavior of these tour vessels and possible reasons why these strategies are employed. The study also identifies possible hazards associated with tourists swimming with seals and the need to develop management strategies to support and protect this industry.
Key words: Australian fur seals; Arctocephalus pusillus; Swim-with-seal operations; Tourism management
Address correspondence to C. Scarpaci at her current address: Victoria University of Technology, Science and Food Technology, PO Box 14428 (W107), MCMC 8001, Victoria, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Threats to Tourist and Visitor Safety at Beaches in Victoria, Australia
Carolyn Staines, Damian Morgan, and Joan Ozanne-Smith
Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
This study identifies the nature and frequency of deaths, injuries, and crimes occurring at beaches in the state of Victoria, Australia. Results showed that while most deaths occurring at beaches were associated with submersion incidents, substantial proportions of deaths occurred from natural causes or intentional self-harm. The majority of injuries were relatively minor in severity; however, 8.6% of beach-related injury cases presenting to hospital emergency departments were sufficiently severe to require hospitalization. Crimes occurring at beaches were primarily against property, but 21% of offenses were crimes against people, the majority of these being sexually related offenses. This study identified a number of safety issues at beaches that need to be addressed by both beach users and beach managers.
Key words: Beach safety; Death; Injury; Crime; Tourist
Address correspondence to Carolyn Staines, Accident Research Centre, Building 70, Monash University, VIC Australia 3800. Tel: 61 3 9905 9669; Fax: 61 3 9905 1809; E-mail: email@example.com
Profile of Visitors to the Island of Superagüi, South Brazil
Inge Andrea Niefer
Consultant in Sustainable Tourism and Ecotourism and Member of the CBTS (Brazilian Counsel for Sustainable Tourism)
This study presents the results of research that was conducted on the island of Superagüi, part of the National Park of Superagüi, state of Paraná, Brazil. A questionnaire with 37 qualitative and quantitative questions was applied. The questionnaire contained aspects of sociodemographic characteristics, trip characteristics, environmental awareness, favorite activities, motivation, and perception of the destination. From the period of December 1998 to May 2000, 327 questionnaires were completed through personal interviews. Benefit segmentation identified five clusters among the visitors: 1) indifferent ones; 2) nonsociable adventurers; 3) sociable adventurers; 4) enthusiasts; and 5) nonsociable naturalists.
Key words: Sustainable tourism; Marketing; Visitor's profile; National Park of Superagüi; Benefit segmentation
Address correspondence to Inge Andrea Niefer, Tv. Medianeira 180/3, Boa Vista, 82210-040 Curitiba-PR, Brazil. Tel: 55 41 3548795; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourists and Beach Safety in Queensland, Australia
Jeffrey Wilks,1 Peter Dawes,2 Donna Pendergast,1 and Brett Williamson2
1The University of Queensland, 11 Salisbury
Road, Ipswich, QLD 4305, Australia
2Surf Life Saving Queensland, PO Box 3747, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia
Surf Life Saving Queensland (SLSQ) is a leading authority on beach safety, providing patrol, education, and rescue services to both tourists and local residents along the coast of Queensland, Australia. SLSQ recognizes that tourists are a target group requiring special attention due to their unfamiliarity with ocean beaches and surfing activities, and in some cases having the additional challenge of poor swimming skills, language barriers, and disorientation in a foreign vacation environment. This article describes SLSQ initiatives to provide beach safety for tourists through a focus on service delivery and partnerships with the tourism industry and relevant government agencies. The positive involvement of SLSQ in tourism is a model for other coastal destinations, given that drowning is the second most frequent cause of injury death among international travelers.
Key Words: Surf lifesaving; Tourism; Beach safety
Address correspondence to Jeffrey Wilks, Professor of Tourism, The University of Queensland, 11 Salisbury Road, Ipswich, QLD 4305, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Motivation of Whale-Watching Tourists in Scotland
C. J. G. Rawles1 and E. C. M. Parsons2,3
1Department of Geography, University
of Reading, Reading, England
2University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland
3Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, University Drive, Fairfax, VA, USA
In 2001 and 2002 a survey was conducted to investigate levels of environmental awareness and motivation in Scottish whale watchers. Eighty-three percent of respondents regularly recycled items, 60% used energy-saving light bulbs, and 42% used other energy-saving devices in their homes. Forty-six percent regularly purchased organic or environmentally friendly products and 73% only purchased cosmetic/hygiene products that had not been tested on animals. Nearly half (46.6%) were members of environmental or animal welfare organizations, with 27.1% having participated in voluntary work for such organizations. The results demonstrate that Scottish whale watchers are much more environmentally motivated than the general public, and furthermore demonstrated higher levels of environmental motivation than whale-watching tourists studied in other parts of the world.
Key words: Environmental motivation; Whale watching; Scotland
Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, 433 Christopher Avenue #11, Gaithersburg, MD 20879 USA. Tel: (307) 977-7109; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org