|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1
Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2,
1544-273X/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Wilderness Cruising: Turbulence, Cruise Ships, and Benthic Communities
Claire Ellis,1 Neville Barrett,2 and Sophia Schmieman3
1University of Tasmania
2Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute
3Australian Maritime College
This article examines the potential impact on fragile benthic marine biota from the turbulence created by the passage, maneuvering, and anchoring of a cruise ship. It is based on research undertaken to determine whether small, expedition-style cruise ships should be permitted to enter parts of Bathurst Channel within the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Australia. Instead of characteristics such as ship length, draft, and tonnage, a model was developed that utilized a series of variables to more accurately predict ship turbulence and potential impacts. The model was partially validated in "real size" and is now integrated into the permit process to determine whether a specific cruise ship may enter the pristine and sensitive area of Bathurst Channel.
Key words: Cruise ship; Environmental impact; Turbulence; Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area; Benthic community
Address correspondence to Claire Ellis, Lecturer in Tourism, Tourism Program, School of Management, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 16, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia. Tel: 61-(0) 3 6226 2849; Fax: 61-(0) 3 6226 2808; E-mail: Claire.firstname.lastname@example.org
Factors Influencing Boater Satisfaction in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Stephen G. Sutton
Cooperative Research Centre for the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and School of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography, James Cook University, Australia
This article investigates determinants of satisfaction for recreational fishers and nonfishers boating in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Trip satisfaction was modeled as a function of subjective evaluations of various trip aspects. Satisfaction of fishers and nonfishers was related to evaluations of environment quality and weather quality. Satisfaction of fishers was also related to evaluations of fishing quality. There was no effect of evaluation of marine life quality, facilities quality, number of people encountered, number of vessels encountered, or number of wildlife encounters on satisfaction for either group. Results are consistent with the multiple-satisfactions concept of recreation satisfaction, and provide insights into the types of experiences sought by fishers and nonfishers in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.
Key words: Recreation satisfaction; Fishing; Boating; Great Barrier Reef
Address correspondence to Stephen G. Sutton, School of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. Tel: +61-7-4781-5510; Fax: +61-7-4781-4099; E-mail: Stephen.Sutton@jcu.edu.au
Human Perceptions of Hauled Out Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca Cinerea) and Implications for Management: A Case Study From Carnac Island, Western Australia
Jean-Paul Orsini1 and David Newsome2
1Jean-Paul Orsini and Associates, Swanbourne,
Western Australia, 6010, Australia
2School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia
This study focuses on visitor perceptions of hauled out sea lions on Carnac Island, Western Australia. Carnac Island lies close to the city of Perth and is an important haulout (resting) site for the Australian sea lion, which is recognized as a species in need of special protection. The island is easily accessible by pleasure craft as well as tour boats with many people visiting during the summer (November-April) period. A visitor survey was conducted in order to obtain information on visitor expectations of sea lion viewing, the nature of visitor experience, perceptions of visitor impacts, and views on management. Up to 80% of visitation to the island was by private boat owners and 73% of respondents expected to view sea lions on the beach. Most respondents believed that their presence did not disturb the sea lions, although 78% stated that they observed other people disturbing the sea lions. The survey indicated a high degree of visitor satisfaction. Most respondents were of the opinion that 5 m or less was a safe distance to approach sea lions, in contrast to a recommended approach safe distance of more than 5 m promoted by the state wildlife agency. Visitors supported ranger presence and the provision of more information about sea lions. Management recommendations include the initiation of a visitor monitoring plan, the development of a sea lion interpretation program, increased ranger presence, and a system of training and accreditation for tour guides utilizing Carnac Island.
Key words: Wildlife tourism; Wildlife management; Australian sea lion; Neophoca cinerea; Carnac Island; Western Australia; Human-wildlife interactions; Wildlife disturbance; Human impacts; Visitor surveys
Address correspondence to David Newsome, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia. Tel: 9360 2614; Fax: 9360 6787; E-mail: email@example.com
Environmental Concern and Behaviors Among Coral Reef Tourists at Green Island, Taiwan
Judith Cheng, Brijesh Thapa, and John J. Confer
Center for Tourism Research & Development, Department of Tourism, Recreation & Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
The purpose of this study was to explore environmental concern and self-reported behaviors among coral reef tourists. Data were collected during the summer of 2002 (N = 149; 97% response rate) in Green Island, Taiwan. Environmental concern was operationalized using 13 items, and self-reported behaviors were assessed through 15 items. Both constructs were measured on a 5-point Likert scale format. Based on descriptive results, respondents were largely supportive of numerous environmental issues that relate to coral reefs, but lacked much involvement in various environmentally responsible behaviors. Examination of tourists' environmental concern and behaviors can help managers to design educational materials and management plans to protect the resource and enhance visitor experiences.
Keywords: Coral reef tourists; Environmental concern and behaviors; Taiwan
Address correspondence to Brijesh Thapa, Center for Tourism Research & Development, Department of Tourism, Recreation & Sport Management, University of Florida, 325B FLG, Gainesville, FL 32611-8209, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org