ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2, pp. 51-63
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining Dimensions of Anticipation: Inputs Prior to Visiting the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica

Patrick T. Maher,1 Alison J. McIntosh,2 and Gary D. Steel3

1Resource Recreation and Tourism Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Canada
2Department of Tourism Management, University of Waikato, New Zealand
3Social Science, Parks, Recreation and Tourism Group, Environment, Society and Design Division, Lincoln University, New Zealand

Few previous studies have given attention to the nature of the experiences gained by those visiting remote locations. This article presents findings from a study that examined the anticipation phase of experience for visitors to the Ross Sea region of the Antarctic continent. Prior to their visit, 55 visitors voluntarily completed a mail-back self-administered survey examining their anticipation of the visit and recording their demographic characteristics. Anticipation, prior to their on-site experience, was measured in relation to three defining dimensions: motivations, image, and mood. Findings suggest that visitors to the Ross Sea region may be notably different in their demographic profile and their anticipation of the visit than from those reported in previous Antarctic studies.

Key words: Visitors; Anticipation; Multiphase experience; Antarctica

Address correspondence to Patrick T. Maher, Assistant Professor, Resource Recreation and Tourism Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada V2N 4Z9. Tel: +01 250 960 5235; Fax: +01 250 960 6533; E-mail: maherp@unbc.ca

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2, pp. 65-77
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

From Inuits in Skin Boats to Bobos on the High Seas: The Commodification of Sea Kayaking Through Tourism

Simon Hudson1 and Paul Beedie2

1Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
2De Montfort University, Bedford, UK, MK40 2BZ

This article explores the relationship between adventure and tourism through an examination of sea kayaking. The theoretical focus of this discussion is commodification, and in particular the role of commercial developments in the adventure tourism sector. It is argued that commodification has been facilitated by four main factors: changing lifestyles; a deferring of control to guides; a proliferation of promotional media; and the application of technology in adventurous settings. Each of these influences on kayaking is examined in turn. Drawing on examples from all over the world, the article proposes that sea kayaking is moving from being a hard adventure activity towards a soft one through this process of commodification.

Key words: Sea kayaking; Commodification; Adventure tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Simon Hudson, Associate Professor, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 1N4. Tel: +1 (403) 220 8738; Fax: (403) 282 0095; E-mail: simon.hudson@haskayne.ucalgary.ca

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2, pp. 79-88
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Profiling Changes in the Supply Side of Marine Tourism in New Zealand: A Spatiotemporal Analysis

Caroline Orchiston

Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Marine tourism is an industry experiencing rapid growth, both worldwide and in New Zealand. Marine tourism operations are diverse in nature, encompassing physical activities such as sea kayaking and diving, as well as more passive observation of wildlife and scenery. In light of this growth and diversification, there has been a widely acknowledged need for detailed profiling research focused on this sector. This article profiles marine tourism operators with respect to a number of criteria, including tour location, tour activities and attractions, and business development issues such as visitor numbers, employees, and length of time in business. The research employed a postal survey, which was sent to all marine tourism operators in New Zealand in September 2002. Aspects of the study were directly comparable to an earlier study conducted by McKegg, which made it possible to draw comparisons in terms of growth and development since 1996. The number of operators has increased by 57% over the time period, with the most popular marine tours involving scenic cruises and observation of wildlife. Marine mammals and marine reserves both continue to increase in popularity. The latter are becoming marine attractions in their own right, which has implications for the Department of Conservation drive to protect 10% of New Zealand waters as marine parks by 2010. This research will assist with the development of government policy; namely, the Oceans Policy, a document designed to ensure a consistent and integrated management approach to the ocean under New Zealand's jurisdiction.

Key words: Marine tourism; Spatial analysis; Marine reserves; New Zealand

Address correspondence to Caroline Orchiston, Department of Tourism, PO Box 56, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. E-mail: corchiston@business.otago.ac.nz

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2, pp. 89-102
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Layang Layang: An Empirical Study on Scuba Divers' Satisfaction

Ghazali Musa, Sharifah Latifah Syed A. Kadir, and Lawrence Lee

Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University Malaya, 59,200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Scuba diving is a burgeoning special interest tourism product in Malaysia. Layang Layang Island in the middle of the South China Sea is one of the world's most exciting diving destinations known for its hammerhead sharks among the diving community. This study is a pilot survey aimed at measuring divers' satisfaction with Layang Layang. One hundred self-administered questionnaires were given out to divers on the last day of their stay in September 2004. Ninety-eight questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The results show that divers are generally Europeans, older, first timers, experienced, of high education and near equality between the sexes. The overall satisfaction is very high. The main contributors to diving satisfaction are underwater nature and the comfort and ease of access to dive sites. Divers are less satisfied with the provision of marine life education facilities, rental equipment, lodging, and the lack of other activities. It is suggested that in order to ensure divers' satisfaction, the management should appropriately manage divers' expectations by providing accurate information about Layang Layang using the most satisfactory diving variables in the marketing message. The resort at the same time should ensure that the natural features of the island are sustainable, because they are the reasons for divers' visits. Future research should improve on the questionnaire design and the size of diver sample population.

Key words: Layang Layang; Scuba diving; Satisfaction; Hammerheads

Address correspondence to Ghazali Musa, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University Malaya, 59,200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: 00-60-3-79673947; Fax: 00-60-3-79673810; E-mail: ghazalimz@um.edu.my

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2, pp. 103-109
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Public Awareness of Whale-Watching Opportunities in Scotland

C. Howard1* and E. C. M. Parsons2

1School of Life Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland
2University Marine Biological Station, Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland

In 2003, a survey was conducted to assess the awareness of the general public of whale-watching opportunities in Scotland and to assess the potential domestic market for whale-watching activities. Fifty-four percent of respondents took holidays in Scotland, and two thirds stated that opportunities to watch wildlife were an important motivational factor for them having holidays in Scotland. Although the US was the country thought by the majority as a primary whale-watching location, Scotland featured second. Over half were aware of whale-watching opportunities in Scotland, although only a third were aware of specific locations. The most commonly cited whale-watching location was the Moray Firth. Only 7.7% of the respondents had actually been whale watching, although more than half the respondents said that they would be interested in going on a whale-watching trip in Scotland. Eighty-five percent of survey respondents thought that the Scottish Tourist Board could do more to promote whale watching in Scotland and television advertising was considered to be the most effective means of such promotion. This study indicated that there was a relatively large potential domestic market for whale watching in Scotland that is, as yet, untapped.

Key words: Whale watching; Scotland; Awareness; Marketing; Domestic market

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons at his current address: Department of Environmental Science & Policy, David King Building, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. Tel: (1) 301-977-7109; E-mail: ecm-parsons@earthlink.net

*Current address: Environment Agency, TFS National Service, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, WA4 1HG, England (E-mail: claire.howard@environment-agency.gov.uk).

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2, pp. 111-118
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Onboard Marine Environmental Education: Whale Watching in the San Juan Islands, Washington

Melissa S. Andersen and Marc L. Miller

School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA

Marine environmental education is a powerful mechanism for shaping human conduct and for enhancing quality of life. Regulation notwithstanding, sustainable tourism depends on sustainable education. Over the last several decades, whale-watching tourism has emerged as a nature-based business and leisure activity of significant proportions. Typically, whale watching brings together vessel operators and their crew, professional onboard naturalists or interpreters, and diverse categories of whale-watching clients or tourists. This compound interest in whales as (eco)touristic objects has led to campaigns for living marine resource management regimes that protect whales while optimizing the whale-watching experience. Preliminary survey research of whale-watching tourists in the San Juan Islands, Washington (USA) reveals that whale-watchers' expectations concern seeing whales and other wildlife, along with learning about the whales and the marine environment. Whale-watchers' evaluations of their experience confirm that onboard interpreters play two important and intertwined roles, helping to avoid disappointment if/when trip expectations are not met. As interpreters are successful as educators, educational and ecological objectives are achieved. As they are successful as social directors, social and business objectives are achieved. Implications of theses findings will be of interest to those in the whale-watching business and other forms of onboard tourism worldwide; those who aspire to be onboard interpreters; those who are whale watchers; and indirectly, to the whales.

Key words: Environmental education; Onboard interpreters; San Juan Islands, Washington; Whale watching

Address correspondence to Melissa S. Andersen. E-mail: Melissa.Andersen@noaa.gov

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 2, pp. 119-132
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2004-2005

E. C. M. Parsons,1,2 Jill Lewandowski,2 and Michael Lück3

1University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Glasgow, UK
2Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
3School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines from the biological aspects of the impacts of whale-watching tour boats on whales to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching. The following is a digest of recent whale-watching research, initially produced for the members of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) meeting in Ulsan, Korea in May/June 2005. This article briefly describes the variety and findings of studies published recently on various aspects of research related to whale watching.

Key words: Whale watching; Code of conduct; Regulations; Management; Whale watchers; Protected areas; International Whaling Commission (IWC)

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, 433 Christopher Avenue #11, Gaithersburg, MD 20879, USA. Tel: +1 (307) 977-7109; E-mail: ecm-parsons@earthlink.net